XVIII - what century is this? Europe in the 18th century

So, to begin with, we will answer a far from new question, which arises in many schoolchildren and not only: "XVIII - what age is this?" Let's try to understand this within the framework of this article.

Secret of Latin numbers, or Answer to the question: "XVIII - what century?"

Often people complain that the Roman figures for them are very complex. In fact, there is nothing difficult here. Everything follows a completely understandable logic.

So, in the case of the number XVIII it must be deciphered, starting from the very beginning. So, X is ten. Accordingly, the number will be clearly greater than 10, since the remaining numbers stand to the right of the main. The fact is that if we had the number IX, then it would be already 9, since the unit on the left is subtracted from 10. So, we go further. V is 5, and the last part, respectively, 3. All elements are summed up and we get the finished number - 18. But in parallel with the question of whether XVIII is what century this is, another difficulty arises. What year can be attributed to the 18th century - the 1750th or 1829th? The answer is only one: 1750, since 1829 will be already the 19th century.

The history of the 18th century. Education

So, when we figured out where this is, let's stop at the history of this period. To begin with, Europe in the XVIII century experienced a grand event in its history - the Enlightenment. This term is familiar to many. One can ask the question: XVIII - what century, but it is impossible not to know the features of this phenomenon. Each country had its own way. But what was common to all was the collapse of feudalism.

Enlightenment is a natural process, which inevitably began with the fall of the feudal system. It is humanistic and gravitates toward formal law, seeing in it the guarantee of freedom and a better life. Enlightenment as a phenomenon not only affected the intellectual development of Europe. It boldly criticized the obsolete and outdated forms of life and way of life, preserved since the Middle Ages.

Basic ideas of English Enlightenment

So, Locke brought to the fore moral qualities and landmarks, treating the state as an agreement of people. He believed that the only natural regulator of interpersonal and social relations are the norms of morality, morality and behavior.

They should have been established, according to the philosopher, "by universal tacit agreement." The history of the XVIII century completely determined the further development path of many countries, including Great Britain. English figures of the Enlightenment believed that the highest goal - not the happiness of society, but the happiness of an individual, personal elevation.

Locke also stressed that all people are born with a set of strengths and abilities that will help them achieve almost everything. But only constant efforts, as the philosopher believed, contribute to the realization of the potential built into each. Only personal creative effort will help a person succeed in life. Speaking thus, the English philosophers of the 18th century very accurately grasped the need of society at that time.

The French Enlightenment

In contrast to the ideas of English enlighteners, Rousseau highlights the socium, and not one individual. According to his ideas, initially the whole power belonged to society, but then it betrayed the power of the rulers to act in its interests. Rousseau was a supporter of a democratic republican state. Civil equality will be achieved only when every citizen can participate in governance.

Montesquieu, in turn, insists that the state structure of any country should adapt to the climate, and to religion, and to the character of the people. Also the philosopher considers the republican form the best form of the state structure. But, not seeing in modern states the opportunity to implement it, dwells on the constitutional monarchy. In this case, the ruler will be owned only by the executive branch, and the legislative one - by the elected parliament.

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