Planting a cherry is easy, but in order for a tree to grow strong, healthy and yield a rich harvest, it must be properly taken care of. It is very important to care for the cherry in the spring, and it consists of several stages that will ensure the proper development of the tree and obtaining an excellent harvest.
Planting a cherry
First of all, it is necessary to determine the place where the tree will grow. Cherry is demanding of sunlight, so you need to choose a well-lit area on the dais, protected from the cold wind. The tree does not tolerate a transplant, therefore it is necessary to approach the choice of a place for it with all responsibility.
Cherry planted in April, until the buds blossomed. Preferably light loamy or medium loamy soil. To start, prepare a landing pit, the optimum depth of which is 40-45 cm, diameter - 50-60 cm. In the middle, put a peg on which the tree will rest. In the center is an elevation of soil mixed with fertilizers (humus, superphosphate - 30-40 g, potassium chloride - 20-30 g and 1 kg of ash). Seedling is installed strictly vertically in the pit, sprinkled with earth and compacted. Around the tree, you need to make a hole for watering and pour in it two or three buckets of warm water. The earth around the seedling is mulched with humus or sawdust.
If nevertheless there is a need to transplant a tree, the cherry transplantation in the spring will be the most successful option, since in the summer the seedling will have time to get used to a new place and to acclimatize well.
Many gardeners are interested in the question of how to feed cherries in the spring, to add a tree of strength and get a good harvest?
The first top dressing is produced before flowering. Effective use of ammonium nitrate or urea, which must be introduced into the soil in a liquid form. Spraying does not bring much benefit, as thus branches are treated, and not leaves, through which microelements are absorbed.
During flowering, top dressing is carried out by the root method using nitrogen-containing compounds. You can also use green manure or chicken droppings. In order not to damage the root system, it is necessary to try not to exaggerate the dose of chicken manure.
After the cherry blossoms, organic fertilizer is produced: manure, compost or special organic mixtures. This ensures a qualitative harvest.
Care for the cherry spring also includes the fight against pests and diseases, which are intensifying at this time of the year. Serious damage to your tree can be caused by cherry aphid, cherry moth, weevil, mucous sawfly.
The first processing of cherries in the spring is made in late March or early April, until the sap flow begins. Thus, all pests that survived frost in the ground or in the tree are destroyed. In the shops you can find many effective and safe tools for pest control, the main thing is to follow the instructions so as not to harm the tree.
Treatment of cherries in the spring for the prevention of fungal diseases is done with the help of copper vitriol or Bordeaux liquid. Means are safe for both people and fruits.
Trimming of the trunk
In the spring, dry grass and rubbish are removed around the trees, the soil is carefully dug in order not to damage the roots of the cherry.
Care for cherries in the spring can not do without whitewashing. This procedure is necessary to protect the tree trunk from parasites, rodents and excessive exposure to sunlight. In addition, whitewash prevents cracking of the bark in the event of temperature changes, creating a protective film on the surface . It should be remembered that young plants that have a smooth bark should not be whitened, as gas exchange is disturbed in whitewashed whitewashed pores, which interferes with the normal development of the plant.
Spring whitening is performed before the arrival of heat and the appearance of pests. It is best to do this in mid-March or early April. You can not whitewash trees in cloudy or rainy weather. Before whitening, it is necessary to examine the trunk of a cherry, clean off the old bark and moss. You can not use knives and brushes for this purpose, so as not to damage the bark of the tree. The existing damage is covered with a garden boil, after which the trunk is whitened using a spray gun or a wide brush.
Pruning of cherries
Such care for cherry in spring is necessary for the proper formation of the tree, increasing the yield, improving the taste of berries. In addition, pruning is an additional protection of cherries from pests and prevents the spread of disease. Cuts all dried, as well as damaged by pests or diseases of the branch. For convenience, when harvesting, cut and twigs that grow too high. In addition, the dried bark is also removed.
Rules for pruning cherries
- Cherry pruning should be done the next year after planting, this ensures the correct formation of the crown and prevents its thickening.
- It is necessary to cut off all branches that grow inward.
- The young shoots that appeared on the stem must be broken off in the summer or cut off in the spring of the following year.
- The trimming procedure is performed before buds swell. Dry and damaged shoots are removed. After this, it is necessary to cover every wound with a garden saver.
- Bush-like varieties need to trim branches that are longer than 50 cm.
- To form the correct shape of the crown, as the tree grows, lateral shoots are left on the main trunk. An adult tree should have about 15 branches.
- Cropping an old cherry, do not delete too many branches at a time.
Trimming a young tree
Scheme of pruning of cherries in spring is as follows: it is necessary to leave 4-5 developed branches, removing the remaining growths and covering the wounds. Branches that remained, should be located at a distance of ten centimeters from each other and look in different directions. In the future it is necessary to observe the correct formation of the crown. Shoots that go inside must be removed. Crop the young tree should be carefully, to avoid a decline in yields in the future.
Pruning of an adult tree
Pruning of adult bush cherries is done in order to rejuvenate the tree and increase its yield. This procedure is carried out when the fruiting is reduced. Scheme pruning cherries in spring such: reduce the number of branches and shorten them to a third or half the length of the shoot. In addition, it is necessary to remove skeletal and semi-skeletal branches, but not in one year, so that the tree can bear fruit. It is not necessary to perform the removal of annual increments.
An old cherry tree cherry needs to shorten the annual shoots slightly. Such rejuvenation is necessary when the skeletal branches become bare at the base and the growth of shoots slows down (less than 15 cm per year).
Cropping old trees, it is necessary to remember that it is not recommended to get rid of a lot of branches at once, rejuvenation should be carried out in stages, for several years.
Cherry is not a whimsical plant. But to get a good harvest, you need the right care for the cherry in the spring, as well as throughout the year.