Borovitsky Hill is the place where the settlement arose, which later became the foundation of the capital of the Moscow State. It is located at the confluence of the Moskva River to Neglinnaya. In ancient times it was covered with dense vegetation, mainly coniferous and pine trees. This place has become a haven for several groups of the population and a number of archaeological cultures.
Borovitsky hill in ancient times was initially inhabited by hunters and fishermen (Fatyanov period). Subsequently, they were replaced by cattle-breeding peoples (deacon's stage), after which the place became the settlement zone of the already directly Slavic population: Vyatichi and Krivichi. Researchers find the remains of their stay here in the form of mounds. There is an assumption that in the 11th century Borovitsky Hill was a settlement with small fortifications, a wooden palisade, a moat.
The place was first mentioned in the annals under the year 1147 in connection with the feast, which was arranged by the Rostov-Suzdal prince Yury Dolgoruky to his ally. Preserved information that after a while he ordered to build a wooden fortress here. However, there is a point of view that here was located the estate of a certain boyar Kuchka, who was forcibly taken away from him and turned into a hereditary princely patrimony. Favorable geographical location subsequently led to the fact that Borovitsky Hill occupied an important place in the system of defensive structures in the northeastern lands.
The period of feudal fragmentation was marked by feuds and quarrels between princes, from which the simple local population suffered greatly. In search of a secluded refuge, they ascended from their homes and went to more remote and safe places. This was a fairly powerful migration flow, which led to a new settlement of the region. Borovitsky Hill in Moscow also became a place of refuge. Nevertheless, the city that arose in its place often became the object of attacks and plunder: in the 11th century, for example, he was burned by the Ryazan prince, in the 13th century he was devastated by the raid of the Batyti rati.
Nowadays Red Square, part of China-city is located here. The highest part was called Makovitsa, which in translation means the crown. Here is the Cathedral Square with one of the main temple buildings in our country - the Patriarchal Assumption Cathedral. Thus, Borovitsky Hill became the center of the future capital and the nucleus of the new state. In many respects this was determined by its advantageous geographical location, rich in natural resources, and also by the security of this place from the raids of nomads and Mongol-Tatars, which attracted many people here during the rule of the Horde yoke. The edge of the hill was called the "rabble", or the frontal place: from here the tsars and patriarchs addressed the people.
The origin of the name "Borovitsky Hill" is associated with the peculiarities of its natural and geographical conditions. There is a point of view that he received such a name because he was covered with boron. According to another version, the place was named from the word "Borovitsa", which in translation means the space where the forest or boron is located. Both hypotheses are similar, and the fidelity of this assumption is proved by the fact that the early buildings here were associated with this name, for example, a church and a monastery. This explains the answer to the question of why Borovitsky Hill is so called.
The further history of this place is connected with the reign of the first Moscow princes, who were engaged in its construction. Under Ivan Kalita, several churches were built and erected here, and three years before his death - the oak Kremlin. With his grandson, Dmitri Donskoi, the construction of stone walls around the capital began, which played an important role in protecting the city from the invasion of the Lithuanian prince, the Tatar khan. The new structure was built from the outside of the old walls. The thickness of the new walls was from two to three meters. The fortified row also included ditches, embankments. The walls were equipped with loopholes. Under Ivan III, a new construction of the Kremlin constructions began, this time from bricks. It took about ten years to erect it.
In the 17th century, construction on the Borovitsky Hill again continued. Here were erected churches, belfry, palaces, palaces. The towers were made in tent-like style, in this form they have survived to this day. At the first emperor of Russia, the Arsenal building was built here, but later, in connection with the transfer of the capital to Petersburg, construction, unfortunately, ceased. The importance of Borovitsky Hill is great not only in the history of the Moscow principality, but also in the Russian general. The point is that this place became the core of a single state, becoming the center of unification of disparate lands and principalities. Advantageous strategic and economic importance played a big role in its development and enrichment.