In the residential area of Veliky Novgorod, called from the medieval time by the Nerevsky end, a group of architectural structures survived. They are located along the left bank of the Volkhov River on the Sofia side to the north, inside the earthen rampart. All of them represent the most mature and artistically finished monuments of Novgorod architecture dating back to the 15th century, and are subject to protection as a national treasure. Their location historians associated with the Nerevsky end, often calling them Kozhevnitsky.
Church of Peter and Paul in Kozhevniki: description
The architects decided to build this temple on the banks of the mighty Volkhov, it is to it that it faces its eastern facade. Professionally selected proportions, creating a magnificent silhouette, and the right location, today made this temple a beautiful monument of ancient art, studying which, you can see how the architecture progressed over time.
Behind the rampart on the side of Dmitrievskaya Street, which leads up to the Zverin-Pokrovsky Monastery, this ancient and amazing structure, differing in completeness and maturity, still stands. This is truly a beautiful example of architecture, which was typical for the heyday of the Novgorod land.
The church of Peter and Paul in Kozhevniki was erected in 1406. It is built of blocks of limestone, all decorative works of the front part, as well as arches, scapula and head of the church are made of red brick.
Architecture of antiquity
According to historical legend, this beautiful temple was built on the means of artisans-tanners. A long time ago, and to be more precise, in 1227 there was a wooden church on this place. But in 1384 she suffered a severe fire. The walls of the new church were erected from blocks of limestone and bricks and were not specially plastered.
By 1930, the bell tower of the church was demolished. However, it was during the years of the fascist occupation that he suffered most. Completely restore its original beauty was only possible by the 1960s. This process was handled by architects Stender GM and Shulyak L.M.
The Church of Peter and Paul in Kozhevniki, whose photographs fully show all the graceful beauty and majesty, not broken by centuries, is a high enough single-headed four-pillared building. Its facades are finished and rigorous in proportion, and in the final areas emphasis is placed on the masterfully decorated brickwork of the multi-bladed ornamental arch, whose ensemble includes belts carved from triangular hollows, arches of frieze, rosettes, round and pentagonal shapes, curbs and relief Crosses.
On the facade from the south to the present day preserved five-member composition. It consists of two niches and three windows located between them. The ancient architects of the church of Peter and Paul in Kozhevniki were crowned with a decorative five-lobed crochet. The very apse of the temple is decorated with very original vertical drafts. They were pulled together by semicircular small arches.
The most important and bright elements of interior decoration are made in the traditional style, worked out in the XIV century, in its second half. Another bright and original architectural solution of the church of Peter and Paul was the arrangement of the entrance to the cottages not in the very thickness of the wall (such techniques were often used in the construction of Novgorod temples of the XII-XV centuries), but as a separate stone staircase located in the north-western part of the temple . Interestingly, this particular feature of the church repeats and shows the reception, which was used by the architects of the famous temple of Theodore Stratelates, built in 1360.
Already in the 18th century, the side of the Three Saints was added to the south side. A little later on the western side a small bell-tower was built.
In the period from the XV to the XVI century, the whole church of Peter and Paul underwent changes in Kozhevniki. The plan for its reconstruction turned out to be very interesting - it became a two-story building. In the western part of the choir, where the staircase led from the north-west corner began to be located. Thus, a sub-church appeared or, in another way, podklet. The church itself was located on the second floor in the so-called senyas.
Paintings and murals
Built portal, which has a sharp form, was knocked out at a time when the temple was divided into two floors. On the sides of this portal were the remains of an old painting, and one could see the image of the apostles Paul and Peter on one side, and the angel with a sword in his hand on the other.
The researcher who conducted the image analysis researcher Gusev Pavel established that the icon of the apostles Peter and Paul was made in oil painting in a craft-painting style, and the Angel by fresco technique. In the end, he concluded that the works belong to quite different epochs. Angel was carried to the XVI century, the image of Peter and Paul - by the XVIII century, when the temple was moved to the second floor.
Today the temple is no longer functioning, and worship services are not held there. Now there is a branch of the State Museum-Reserve, which operates on Wednesday and Sunday from 11.00 to 16.00. Monday and Tuesday are days off. Entry fee - 50 rubles., Students and students - 30 rubles., Children under 16 years - free of charge. Every year from October 1 to March 1, the museum closes.