Before the construction starts, the required wall thickness must be determined, the type of masonry and material selected. Solving these issues can puzzle any novice builder, given the huge choice of materials and the availability of various masonry methods.
The most important moment in choosing the thickness of the walls is the economic background. In order to accurately calculate sufficient wall thickness parameters, it is necessary to determine the parameters of the future structure, the heated area, the estimated service life, the residence mode, the type and efficiency of the heating system.
The main points in choosing the masonry
When determining the nature of future masonry, it is recommended to pay attention to the following factors:
- Expected load on the walls. Depends primarily on the number of storeys.
- Climatic conditions. Along with the necessary strength of the walls, heat insulation requirements must be fulfilled.
- Aesthetic component. The walls of insignificant thickness look more attractive in comparison with the same masonry in two or one and a half bricks.
The economic rationale behind the choice of wall thickness
Absolutely inexpedient is the construction, when the thickness of the wall is more than 38 cm. For the preservation of heat in this case, all kinds of insulation methods are used with the help of insulating materials.
Often low-rise buildings use lightweight masonry. This method involves placing several walls in two rows at a distance from each other about half a brick. The creation of an air layer plays, in this case, the role of an effective heat insulator. If necessary, the cavity formed can be filled with any suitable insulating material.
Bearing brick walls
With the correct implementation of calculations that lead to a uniform distribution of loads, walls with a thickness of one brick have the highest load-bearing capacity. The thickening of the walls due to the increase in thermal insulation properties leads to the need to lay a more solid foundation, which affects the increase in planned costs.
The aesthetically attractive thickness of the brick wall can be preserved by the use of felt insulators. In the case of their installation, the heat storage indicators increase by approximately 30%. When using foam as a heater, it is possible to achieve an increase in thermal insulation efficiency by 2-3 times.
To increase the heat-insulating properties of bearing walls at the level of about 10-15% allows the use of other least expensive insulators:
- Solution based on slag or fine aggregate.
When creating a continuous masonry, it is advisable to mount the heater from the inside or outside. In this case, the minimum thickness of the brick wall is maintained.
As for the thickness of bearing walls from the most modern, innovative types of bricks, it can be practically any. And in this case, keeping the heat balance practically does not depend on the presence of a heater.
The thickness of the internal brick walls
For laying interior walls, predominantly solid brick is used. Sufficient thickness of internal walls of such a material is not more than 25 cm. In cases when walls are subjected to increased load, the use of reinforcement structures is allowed.
If we talk about internal partitions of the minimum length of up to one and a half meters, enough laying in half a brick. In this case, the thickness of the partition will be 12 cm. An alternative option is brickwork in a quarter of the brick - 6.5 cm.
In cases where the partitions have a length of more than 1.5 m, it is advisable to use reinforcement to increase the bearing properties. For this, a steel reinforcement with a diameter of 2 to 5 mm is used. The reinforcing material is placed approximately every 3 rows of bricks.
Currently, the following types of bricks are distinguished:
The parameters of single bricks are equal: 250 x 12 x 65 mm. In wide use the material was introduced at the beginning of the last century. Later actively used as an alternative to steel sesquioxides and double bricks. Such solutions proved to be more effective in terms of costs when constructing capital facilities.
Calculate what should be the minimum thickness of the wall, you can use an example. When carrying out brickwork in 2.5 bricks, the best option would be the use of double bricks for erecting walls and facing bricks when laying the remaining 0.5 cm wall. The application for the implementation of a similar plan for single bricks increases the material consumption by approximately 25 to 35%.
Another important factor on which the thickness of the brick depends is the index of its thermal conductivity. According to this characteristic, the wall in one and a half bricks loses to many building materials of smaller thickness, for example, a tree.
The thermal conductivity of the whole standard brick is about 0.7 W / m about C. The lowering of the index is possible due to the use of hollow bricks. However, along with a decrease in thermal conductivity, an obvious drawback here is the reduction in strength of structures.
Possible causes of thickening of brick walls
The reason for the thickening of brickwork is the need to increase the insulation and heat engineering qualities of the structure. This may be due to the location of the structure. For example, with its erection near the airport, noisy traffic interchanges, construction in regions with a specific climate.
The sufficiently high values of the thermal conductivity of the brick dictate the necessity of applying various options for increasing the thermal insulation of the structures. To create a comfortable environment in a residential building in our climatic conditions, sufficient wall thickness should be of the order of 20 cm. At the same time, the use of heavy brick entails an additional load on the foundation and increases the construction budget.
Options for improving the thermal insulation of brick walls
- Increase the thickness of the wall due to the implementation of masonry in 2 bricks.
- Creation of ventilated facades due to lumbering, special insulating panels, siding, facing bricks.
- Standard insulation of facades due to their facing with plaster.
- The equipment of walls from a brick warmers from the inside. On the insulation layer, a vapor barrier layer must always be applied, after which the interior decoration of the room is performed.
Wall thickness in panel houses
The standard thickness of the walls in the buildings of the panel type is 14 and 18 cm. Some construction organizations use panels with a thickness of up to 22 cm, starting from the first to the fifth floor, which increases the bearing qualities of the structure. At the same time, regardless of the thickness of the panel wall, reinforcing bars are mandatory.
As for the bearing internal partitions in buildings of this type, here they are 8 cm thick. Sometimes, gas silicate materials are used to create internal partitions. The thickness of the gas-silicate wall in the panel houses is identical to the above value. As in the case of the construction of concrete walls, partitions made of reinforcement are also used here.
In some panel houses, thickened outer walls are mounted up to 38 cm, which increases the thermal insulation properties of the floors. Sometimes such walls are made in the form of a concrete or expanded clay sandwich with an inner layer of foam.
Wall thickness of blocks
Thickness of load-bearing walls from foam blocks with brick lining:
- Material grade 600 - the thickness of the layer is 450 mm.
- Material grade 800 - layer thickness 680 mm.
- Material grade 1000 - the thickness of the layer is 940 mm.
Masonry with external plaster:
- Material grade 600 - the layer thickness is 480 mm.
- Material grade 800 - layer thickness 720 mm.
- Material grade 1000 - the thickness of the layer is 1000 mm.
The technology of making foam blocks is similar to brick. At its core, the foam block is the same brick, but only with some difference in the parameters. When installing the walls, the foam blocks are cemented with cement mortar.
Laying the material in several rows is economically inexpedient, since the foam block, in view of the porous internal structure, itself has excellent thermal insulation properties.
Obvious underlying reason for the construction of walls from foam blocks is the low weight of the material, despite some unwieldiness. In general, the unique qualities of foam blocks make it possible not only to save on reducing the thickness of the walls, but also to save money when laying the foundation.