HealthDiseases and Conditions

The main causes of anisocoria

Anisocoria - a disease that is accompanied by a slight difference in the size of the pupils, can also differ and their deformation. In general, one eye functions normally, that is, an extension and narrowing of the circular hole in the center of the iris is observed, and the second - has a fixed size, no changes occur, even when exposed to light.

The causes of anisocoria are varied, but if there is a difference in size not more than 0.1 cm, then this does not apply to pathology. Diagnosis of the disease at different ages, is treatable. Therapy can be complex and is assigned based on the results of the survey.

Anisocoria groups

In modern medicine, three groups of this pathology are distinguished:

  1. The pathology of pupils of congenital or acquired type, which arose as a result of eye injury.
  2. By degree of development: unilateral or bilateral anisocoria.
  3. Disease of the eye or non-eye type.


The causes of anisocoria will depend on the group to which the pathology of the eye belongs.

The provoking factors:

  1. Unilateral anisocoria. Occurs as a result of trauma almost the entire surface of the pupil. At the same time, a normal reaction of one eye to changes is observed, while the other observes a belated reaction or a complete absence of it.
  2. Bilateral anisocoria. It is diagnosed in rare cases. Expressed pathology in the inadequate and uncoordinated response of two pupils to any changes in illumination.
  3. Congenital anisocoria. It occurs as a result of anomalies of the eye or its parts, for example, the apparatus of muscles or the iris. Sometimes newborns may experience incomplete development of the nervous apparatus of one or both eyes, that is, anisocoria, causes - neurology. Diagnosis is mandatory, excluding therapy leads to negative consequences in the future. In this situation, this pathology is combined with strabismus.

Common Factors-Provocateurs

Trauma to the eye or cervical spine, such as osteochondrosis, can lead to a deviation such as anisocoria. The causes of the appearance are associated with traumatic injury. This type of pathology progresses due to mechanical damage to the muscular system, which is responsible not only for the enlargement, but also for the narrowing of the pupil.

With osteochondrosis of the cervical spine, a round hole in the center of the iris stops responding to any changes in and levels of light in the surrounding world.

When there is an increase in the severity of pathology when illuminated, this indicates that there is parasympathetic excitation of the eye, and you can see the dilatation of the pupil. In most situations, the main factor that acts as a provoker of the disease and problems with the eyes is trauma to the oculomotor nerve. Also, the pupil can cease to decrease in size due to the inflammatory process occurring in the iris.

Effects of anisocoria and the causes of oculomotor nerve damage

Expansion of pupils can provoke such negative consequences as:

  1. Doubling in the eyes.
  2. Skewed eyes.
  3. Movement of the apple, but significantly limited.

Damage to the oculomotor nerve - the main cause of the disease - can occur as a result of such provoking factors as:

  1. Aneurysm.
  2. Neoplasms.
  3. Disturbed blood flow in the brain of various types.
  4. Damage to the brain or craniocerebral box.
  5. Dysfunction due to the progression of infectious diseases.

In such a situation, the pupil ceases to respond to light, but in some cases a slow reaction may be noted. As for the eyesight, it becomes fuzzy, since a decrease or a complete absence of tendon reflexes has occurred. Also very often the causes of anisocoria are Horner's syndrome, heredity, carotid artery thrombosis.

Pathology of pupils in children

Very often a child is born, who is diagnosed with this disease of the eye. This is due to the fact that the family already has people suffering from this defect, and the reasons for concern should be completely absent, as it occurs at the genetic level, that is, inherited.

This feature is noticeable immediately after birth and does not provoke any emotional or mental disorders in the baby. Often the difference in the size of the pupils occurs in small patients after 4 years, but in most cases it remains for life. Sometimes anisocoria acts as a sign of Horner's syndrome, and there are other symptoms of pathology.

Causes of the disease in infants

Why does anisocoria occur in a child? The reasons are varied, but not always they are dangerous for life and health. The most common factors include disorders of the development of the autonomic nervous system or hereditary factor. If the difference between the pupils arose suddenly, then this may indicate the development of such diseases and abnormalities in the brain, such as:

  1. Neoplasms.
  2. Aneurysm of the vascular system.
  3. Injuries.
  4. Encephalitis.

In this case, a small patient has strabismus or ovulation of the eyelids.

Older children: diagnosis of "anisocoria"

The reasons for the appearance in older children are also diverse, and include:

  1. Injury of the craniocerebral box or brain.
  2. Meningitis or encephalitis.
  3. Trauma of the eye, surgical interventions that resulted in injury to the iris or sphincter.
  4. Poisoning the body with poisons and chemical elements.
  5. Inflammatory process of the iris.
  6. An aneurysm of the cerebral vascular system or neoplasm in it.
  7. Overdose of medicines.
  8. The syndrome of Adi.

Each deviation will be accompanied by a certain symptomatology.

Diagnosis and treatment

Diagnosis consists in the correct identification of the cause of anisocoria, and also implies a neurological and physical examination. The patient can be assigned:

  1. Study of cerebrospinal fluid.
  2. Blood tests.
  3. Magnetic resonance and computer tomography.
  4. Roentgenogram of the cervical and craniocerebral boxes.
  5. Tonometry.

The examination of patients with this pathology is carried out in a dark and bright room, in turn. Based on the results obtained, therapy is prescribed.

The causes of anisocoria in adults and children can affect the course of treatment. If the disease has not been provoked by a violation of the integrity of the iris of the eye, then a recovery course is not required.

In general, treatment implies the elimination of a provoking factor. It is appointed exclusively by a specialist. Independent therapy should be completely excluded, as this can lead to negative consequences.

The recovery course includes the reception:

  • Medicines that help get rid of migraine and cephalalgia;
  • Drugs-corticosteroids for a significant reduction in edema of the brain;
  • Anticonvulsant drugs to control seizures;
  • Analgesics, antitumor drugs and antibiotics.

If there is an inflammatory process in the brain, it is recommended to use antimicrobial drugs that have a wide spectrum of action, as well as correcting the water-salt balance in the body. Operative treatment is carried out exclusively when traumatizing the craniocerebral box.

Similar articles





Trending Now






Copyright © 2018 Theme powered by WordPress.