The flower is rather complex and by its nature a unique organ of angiosperms. Its main function is the sexual reproduction of the organism. Despite the fact that the structure of the flower has some common features, for each group of plants it is individually and is considered a characteristic taxonomic feature.
Flower, its functions and characteristics . Before considering the structure of the flower, it is necessary to find out what this generative organ is. A flower is nothing but a shortened shoot, while petals, pistils, stamens and sepals are modified leaves.
Flowers of different representatives of the flora have the most diverse characteristics. For example, depending on the method of pollination, they can have different colors and shapes, as well as additional parts, such as nectaries. The same can be said about their size - the smallest duckweed flower has a diameter of 1 mm, and the flower in some topical plants reaches a meter diameter.
The general structure of the flower . Its structure is divided into three main parts:
- The stem part - consists of their pedicels and tsvetolozh.
- Leafy - here include petals and sepals.
- The generative part is pistils and stamens.
The flower is placed on the top of the shoot, both main and lateral. The stem of the shoot smoothly passes into the pedicel (in sedentary flowers this part is either strongly shortened or absent altogether). It extends to the top, forming the so-called flower-root - it is to it that all other parts of the flower are attached. It can be convex, concave, elongated or flat - this is also an important taxonomic feature.
Flower: the structure of the perianth . The perianth refers to the sterile part of the flower. Its main function is the protection of generative parts. In addition, the method of pollination of the plant depends on the shape and structure of the perianth .
Perianth is divided into:
- Simple - all of its leaves are the same (for example, if you consider the structure of the flower of the tulip, you can see that the perianth is simple).
- Double - the elements of the perianth form a cup and a corolla.
The calyx consists of separate sepals - they can be free or can grow together.
The corolla is a set of petals. As a rule, they are the most visible part of the flower. They can grow together or remain free. In some representatives of the vegetable world, for example, in legumes or orchids, corolla is characterized by a rather original structure. Petals can have specialized epidermal cells, which secrete essential oils - this is how the fragrance is created.
The main functions of the corolla are protection from high temperatures per day, protection from hypothermia at night, protection from sunlight, and the involvement of pollinating insects.
Flower structure: generative part . The generative part of the flower is represented by androceem (set of stamens) and gynecium (a collection of pistils).
Stamens are the place of formation and maturation of the pollen of the plant. Their number can vary from one to several hundred. These elements of the flower can grow together, or remain free. The stamen is fastened to the flower stem with a thin filamentous filament, on which an anther is located on top. In turn, the anther is divided into two halves, each of which has two nests, where microspores are contained.
Pestle is one of the main organs of the flower. It consists of intergrown carpels. The pestle can be divided into the ovary (the lower part where the egg is contained), the stalk and the stigma (the part that takes the pollen).
The structure of the flower can be completely different. But it is worth noting that the quantity, the shape of the presence and other small things in the structure of each individual part of it are in fact important taxonomic features that are used in modern taxonomy.