Since the beginning of the 20th century, the world's pedagogical science has been working to ensure that innovative methods of instruction are used in both school and university education . The result of this work was the emergence of schools of a new type - profile, national schools, lyceums, gymnasiums, colleges.
Changes have also affected the structure of higher education. There is a multi-level system that unites institutions of post-graduate education, as well as those that provide higher and secondary vocational education. International universities and private universities started to operate, academies and universities became the main institutions of higher education.
In the pedagogical process, innovative methods of teaching provide for the introduction of innovations in the goals, methods, content and forms of education and upbringing, in the joint activity of the teacher and student. These innovations can be specially designed, already developed or re-emerged due to the pedagogical initiative.
Methods of Innovation in School Education
Today, many teachers use modern technologies and innovative methods of teaching in school to achieve the effectiveness of teaching. These methods include active and interactive forms used in training. Active provide an active position of the student in relation to the teacher and to those who are educated with him. During lessons with their use, textbooks, notebooks, a computer are used, that is, individual means used for training.
Thanks to interactive methods, there is an effective assimilation of knowledge in cooperation with other students. These methods belong to collective forms of learning, during which a group of students works on the material being studied, and each of them is responsible for the work done.
Interactive methods contribute to the qualitative assimilation of new material. To them belong:
- exercises that are creative;
- group tasks;
- educational, role-playing, business games, imitation;
- lessons-meetings with creative people and specialists;
- classes aimed at creative development - lessons-plays, making films, publishing newspapers;
- use of video materials, the Internet, visualization;
- Solving complex problems and problems with the help of "decision tree" methods, "brainstorming".
Therefore, innovative methods of teaching in the school contribute to the development of cognitive interest in children, they teach to systematize and generalize the studied material, discuss and discuss. Comprehending and processing the acquired knowledge, students acquire the skills of applying them in practice, gaining the experience of communication. Undoubtedly, innovative methods of teaching have advantages over traditional ones, because they contribute to the development of the child, teach him independence in cognition and decision-making.
Peculiarities of application of methods of innovation of education in universities
The main task of the higher educational institution at the present stage is the training of specialists who are able to react flexibly and in a timely manner to changes that occur in the world. Therefore, in order to prepare students for professional activities in the future, innovative methods of teaching at the university are used .
These methods include problem training, which involves the formation of skills for solving problematic problems that do not have an unambiguous answer, independent work on the material and the development of skills to apply the acquired knowledge in practice.
Innovative teaching methods also include interactive training. It is aimed at active and deep mastering of the studied material, development of the ability to solve complex problems. Interactive activities include imitative and role games, discussions modeling situations.
One of the modern methods is training through cooperation. It is used for working in small groups. This method aims to effectively assimilate the educational material, develop the ability to perceive different points of view, the ability to cooperate and resolve conflicts in the process of teamwork.
Applied at the present stage of innovative teaching methods in the university provide for a method, the priority of which are moral values. It promotes the formation of individual moral attitudes based on professional ethics, the development of critical thinking, the ability to represent and defend one's own opinion.
Innovative methods have made it possible to change the role of the teacher, who is not only a bearer of knowledge, but also a mentor who initiates creative searches for students.