Ancient India is one of the most unusual civilizations of antiquity. Already in those days they spoke of it as a "country of wise men". Ancient India was in close interaction with both the Arab countries and the ancient world, having a significant impact on their development. Many writers and philosophers of antiquity sought at least once in their life to visit India in order to enrich their worldview.
The first people in the territory of India
And it's no accident - the nature and people of ancient India still continue to interest archeologists. Its territory was inhabited in ancient times. The first tribe inhabiting the territory of modern India was the Dravidians. Then the Dravidians were replaced by other settlers, who differed considerably in their way of life and traditions. The two largest cities of ancient India, which at different times were political centers - it's Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.
Unexpected discovery of archaeologist Sahni
For the first time the Harappan civilization was discovered by archaeologists, who were interested in the nature and people of Ancient India, and for which India itself was the homeland. Initially, the goal of the Indian archaeologist R. Sahni and his colleague R. Banerjee was the opening of the site of the temple of Old Shiva. However, instead of the ruins of the ancient sanctuary, the remains of the foundation of the ancient city quarter appeared before the researchers. Once on the site where excavations were conducted, there were two- and three-story residential buildings, statues stood on the streets. The city was decorated with gardens, bridges and parks, and practically in each of the quarters there was a well.
Legend confirmed by facts
After this discovery, the scientist was even more interested in Ancient India, nature and people who were once part of an ancient civilization. Sahni decided to take another expedition. This time he went to a distance of 600 km from the place where the first discovery was made. The archaeologist's intuition, as well as the stories of local residents, did not disappoint the researchers. Even the name of the hill, where once the British chose bricks for building a railway, inspired a mystical thrill. In the translation of "Mohenjo-Daro", where the Sakhni expedition intended to go, means "Settlement of the Dead".
The legend, which was told by local residents, was subsequently fully confirmed by the finds of Sakhni. It was believed that in ancient times, at the place where the Mohenjo-Daro hill was located, there was a city. His ruler angered the higher powers with his dissolute life, and the gods decided to destroy this civilization. Indeed, in the process of excavation Sahni discovered on the hillside a huge city, which was a contemporary of Ancient Egypt.
Sakhni and his expedition continued to make discoveries that gave more and more information about the nature and people of ancient India. They found on the same territory several large cities, as well as about a thousand small settlements. The found civilization was called Harappsky. By its size, it was four times the size of Sumer.
When the archaeologists studied the extracted remains, they came to the conclusion: the Harappan civilization arose around 3300 BC. E. According to scientists, in its heyday, its population was about 5 million people. The population of the city of Mohenjo-Daro was a mix of different races. Most of the inhabitants were Dravidians, which, according to scientists, were Australoids. And also in the territory of the Harappan civilization there lived representatives with Sumerian, European and Mongoloid appearance.
Scientists also compiled a technological map during the excavations. Nature and people of ancient India, in all likelihood, were in harmony among themselves. Urban streets of the Harappan civilization alternated with the gardens, not separated from the surrounding nature. According to their location, the streets in many respects resemble modern ones. Their width was about ten meters. The wide streets were connected by narrow alleys.
The advantages of Indian lands in antiquity
But the cities were not built immediately. The nature and people of ancient India, briefly described in the works of the above-mentioned archaeologists, showed a kind of symbiosis. The earliest of the settlements that date back to the 6th-4th centuries BC. E., And became the progenitors of ancient Indian civilization. The place for settlement between Northern Balochistan and the Ganges valley provided the ancestors of modern Indians with water, grain, and deposits of flint. In the valleys grazing herds of wild goats and buffaloes - all conditions contributed to the development in these areas of agriculture and agriculture.
Scientists believe that representatives of ancient Indian civilization were trading mainly with Sumerians. This fact is also indicated by the Sumerian manuscripts. In the territory where once the Harappa civilization was located, in large quantities various goods of foreign origin were found. These are cotton fabrics, beads, ornaments and shells.
The decline of the Proto-Indian civilization
It is believed that the period of decline of the Harappan civilization falls on 1800 BC. E. Many scientists are convinced that this was due to the invasion of the Aryans - warlike conquerors from the north-west. In translation from the ancient Indian language, "arias" means "noble". They were nomadic tribes who were engaged in the cultivation of cattle and ate mainly dairy products. In the future, a cow from Indians received the status of a sacred animal. The nature and people of ancient India, therefore, gave way to the "deities" that came from outside.
Other versions of scientists
In the first place, large cities were destroyed by the Aryans. Many buildings fell into decay, and for the construction of new houses an old brick was used. The nature and people of ancient India, studied by other archaeologists, may not fully fit into the harmonious theory of the researcher Sahni. Some scientists believe that the cause of the decline of the Harappan civilization was not only enemy invasions, but also the deterioration of the ecology. This change in the level of the seabed, which caused flooding, and epidemics of terrible diseases. It is also possible that the crisis resulted in low yields due to salinization of soils.
Nature and people of ancient India: Indian castes
In ancient Indian society, caste division dates back to about the first millennium BC. E. The need for it was due not only to religious views, but also to the political system. The fact is that the lowest caste was the entire population, which was conquered by the conquerors-arias. The highest caste included brahmanas - priests who did not engage in heavy physical labor. They existed at the expense of sacrifices.
The consequences of the caste system for society
The next caste, with which the brahmanas often had conflicts, are the warriors, or kshatriyas. Between themselves, they often could not share power. The kshatriya were followed by vaisyas - peasants and shepherds. The lowest caste was the Sudras. The sudras were servants who performed the dirtiest work. Belonging to the caste was inherited. The children of brahmanas could only be brahmanas, the children of sudras - sudras. Such a stratification of society led to the fact that many talented people were doomed to vegetate in poverty, which hampered the development of the whole people.
Throughout the time of the excavation, the mystery of the Harappan civilization attracted other scientists. Among them are the anthropologists who were interested in Ancient India, nature and people living in Mohenjo-Daro. They compiled an approximate portrait of a typical representative of the Harappan civilization. Based on the excavations, the scientists concluded that they were dark-haired and dark-eyed people with dark skin. They belonged to the Mediterranean branch of the Caucasoid race.
Nature and people of ancient India: a scheme for building cities
The largest cities of the Harappan civilization were built with great precision. The streets were as if drawn under a ruler, at home - the same and geometrically correct. In their form, the dwellings of ancient Hindus resembled boxes for cakes. In these cities people had the opportunity to use all the amenities. Through the streets there were so-called irrigation canals, of which water was supplied to each house.
What are the geniuses of Proto-Indian architects
Mother Nature and people of Ancient India (5-graders begin to get acquainted with the culture and traditions of this country in the context of studying the history of the Ancient World) have learned to live in amazing harmony. This symbiosis can impress some facts of the most sophisticated connoisseurs. The amazing achievement of that time was the sewage system. Even without having the faintest idea that the bacteria multiply particularly rapidly at a warm temperature, then the architects took a brilliant decision for their time. Under the ground, they laid pipes from burned bricks, along which all the impurities were taken out of the city. This allowed a large number of people to live in a limited area.