Initially, in Ancient Russia, education played no important role, since in addition to the children of rich boyars and noble families, no one else could learn science. The bulk of the population was made up of peasants who, day and night, were engaged in the cultivation of their lands and the lands of their own master. But the situation began to change during the baptism of Rus.
Experts and historians have calculated that the very first schools in Russia were established in 988 in the city of Kiev. Such information fully corresponds to the famous chronicle "The Tale of Bygone Years". It turns out that the birth of education in Kievan Rus began only when Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavovich began to conduct the baptism of the people. In addition, the name of this particular prince was indicated in the annals, as the founder of the first school in Kievan Rus. By his decree, he ordered noble and boyar families to gather all the children and send them to schools for teaching books. But training was perceived by many as torture. Mothers still did not understand where and why they were going to send their children. That is why, they mourned them greatly, and said goodbye to their children, as if they were going to certain death.
The school created by Prince Vladimir was called "Book Teaching" , and was a real palace educational institution. It taught not only literacy, but also other sciences. About 300 pupils were trained in this school, and all of them were divided into small groups, each of which was taught by their teacher. After that, most of the school could be seen at monasteries and temples. For the first time, the very term "school" appeared in Russia only in 1382, when according to European traditions this term began to denote educational institutions where people were trained in crafts and gave specialized knowledge.
It should be noted that only boys could conduct schooling during the reign of Prince Vladimir, and the first subject for their education was book business. It was believed that men should be more fit for communication, and girls should not know the letter, since they will become future housewives, and their duties will only include the proper possession of the household. And for this to know the letter is not necessary.
And only in May 1086 in Russia appears the very first women's school , founded by Prince Vsevolod Yaroslavovich. And, his daughter, Anna Vsevolodovna at the same time headed the school, and studied the sciences. Only here young girls from rich families could learn to read and write and various crafts. In early 1096, schools began to open already throughout Russia. The first schools began to appear in such large cities as Murom, Vladimir and Polotsk, and they were often built with monasteries and temples. Thus, the priests were considered the most educated people in Russia. Since the 15th century, institutions under monasteries have ceased to be built, and private schools have appeared, which at that time were called "literacy masters" .
Despite such an increase in the construction of educational buildings, the school still did not have a wide distribution throughout Russia. Education in Kievan Rus was organized systematically and ubiquitously. That is why the first schools in Russia existed, but did not blossom and gradually began to fade. And only at the beginning of the 17th century the study of the sciences and arts in schools began in a new way. In the era of Peter the Great , the first school in the city of Kiev was opened in the systematic sciences, which the tsar himself called a new step in the education of each person. Here, however, only children from noble families could still get to this day, but those wishing to give their children to study increased. In all schools of the 17th century, teachers taught subjects such as grammar and Latin.
It is with the era of Peter the Great that historians associate significant transformations in the educational sphere. At this time, not only school institutions that were an order of magnitude higher than the very first schools were opened, but also new schools and lyceums. The main and compulsory subjects for study are mathematics, navigation and medicine.