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Autocracy: absolute, dual and parliamentary monarchy

In A.Pugacheva's well-known song there are words: "All can kings", but whether so it actually? In some countries, kings have absolute power (absolute monarchy), and in others their title is just a tribute to traditions and real opportunities are very limited (parliamentary monarchy).

There are also mixed versions in which, on the one hand, there is a representative body exercising legislative power, but the powers of the king or the emperor are quite large.
Despite the fact that this form of government is considered less democratic than the republic, some states-monarchies, such as Great Britain or Japan, are powerful, influential players in the modern political arena. In connection with the fact that recently the idea of restoration of autocracy (at least, some priests of the Russian Orthodox Church propagates) is being discussed in Russian society, we will consider in more detail the features of each of its species.

Absolute monarchy

As the name itself says, the head of state is not limited by any other authoritative bodies. From a legal point of view, there is no classical monarchy of this type in the modern world. Virtually every country in the world has one or another representative authority. However, in some Muslim countries, the monarch actually has absolute and unlimited power. Examples include Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and others.

Parliamentary monarchy

Most accurately this type of autocracy can be described as follows: "The king reigns, but does not rule." This form of government presupposes a constitution that has been adopted democratically. All legislative power is in the hands of a representative body. Formally, the monarch remains the head of the country, but in reality his powers are very limited. For example, the monarch of Great Britain is obliged to sign laws, but at the same time he has no right to veto them. He performs only ceremonial and representative functions. And in Japan, the constitution expressly forbids the emperor to interfere in the governance of the country. The parliamentary monarchy is a tribute to established traditions. The government in such countries is formed by members of the parliamentary majority, and even if the king or emperor is formally his head, all the same he is actually only responsible to the parliament. With seeming archaism, the parliamentary monarchy is present in many countries, including in such developed and influential states as Great Britain, Japan, as well as in Denmark, the Netherlands, Spain, Australia, Jamaica, Canada, etc. This kind of power is directly opposed to the previous one.

Dualistic monarchy

On the one hand, there is a legislative body in such countries, and on the other hand it fully submits to the head of state. The monarch chooses the government and, if necessary, can dissolve the parliament. Usually, he himself makes a constitution, which is called octroised, that is, it is paid or gifted. The power of the monarch in such states is very strong, and his powers are not always described in legal documents. Examples include Morocco and Nepal. In Russia, this form of power was in the period from 1905 to 1917.

Does Russia need a monarchy?

The question is controversial and complicated. On the one hand, it gives strong power and unity, and on the other - can you trust the fate of such a huge country in the hands of one person? In a recent vote, slightly less than a third of Russians (28%) have nothing against if the head of state once again becomes a monarch. But most of them still spoke out for the republic, the key feature of which is electivity. Still, the lessons of history are not wasted.

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