With many ratings - serious and not very - it is claimed that the most expensive substance in the world is antimatter. To get a gram of antihydrogen, you need to spend more than 62 trillion dollars. The question of the practical value of this substance is being put more and more definitely - many see it as a way to satisfy all the energy needs of mankind.
Mushrooms and spices
Attempts to "cultivate" delicacy mushrooms truffles are made constantly, but do not bring tangible success. Find it is possible only in some limited areas of the planet, only for a very short season, with not every year is a harvest. There are not many people who can find truffles, owners of specially trained pigs or dogs.
Eastern spices and spices have become a profitable commodity since the opening of the roads to India and the countries of the East. The method of collecting such a unique product as saffron has since changed little. To get 1 gram of finished spices you need to collect thin stigmas from several thousand flowers of one of the species of crocus.
Metals of the platinum group
In jewelry and in the manufacture of parts for electronics used materials with high plasticity, corrosion resistance, increased electrical conductivity and chemical inertness. Strength, beautiful surface and noble metal shine are appreciated by jewelers and artists of small plastic arts. Most often these are metals that are not widely distributed in nature, and their extraction and smelting are associated with serious costs.
The top most expensive substances in the world include the precious metals of the platinum group. The most demanded in practical activities are the following:
- Iridium - $ 16 per gram;
- Palladium - $ 17;
- Rhodium - $ 20;
- Platinum is $ 27.
Stable demand for platinum and metals similar to it is also due to its specific chemical properties of the catalyst. Platinum, iridium and other similar substances give to alloys the unique properties needed in a wide variety of industries. The demand for such metals is stable, as in investment objects. In banking, besides platinum, other precious metals, especially palladium, are increasingly used for the production of ingots, investment and collectible coins.
The Yellow Devil
This metal, as the most expensive substance in the world, was the cherished goal of the medieval alchemists. They were unsuccessfully searching for a philosopher's stone, with which it was possible to turn cheaper metals into gold.
The earth's crust contains very little gold as a percentage of other chemical elements, but the number of deposits where it is mined, including in the form of nuggets, is large. The history of its use by a man goes back to time immemorial, which influenced the unique role of this noble metal in the development of civilization. Gold for a long time was the only material equivalent of the wealth of both whole states and individuals.
The physical and chemical properties of the element number 79 made it an essential component of complex technical devices and systems for various purposes. But in industrial products or in dentistry only one tenth of the world's reserves are used, most of them are centralized state funds (mainly in the form of standard, chemically pure ingots) and private property - in the form of jewelry. Although today gold is not the most expensive substance in the world, it is the most common way of long-term investment. The average cost is more than $ 30 per gram.
Delicacy is more expensive than gold
It was very long considered a purely Russian product. Worldwide, tons of sturgeon and beluga black caviar were exported. Today, official international trade is allowed only for some countries, and the main exporter is Iran. The international organizations also made an exception for this country because of the severity of the Iranian legislation against poaching and effective environmental measures in the Caspian Sea's territory, which belongs to the country.
It is the lack of state control over the catch of sturgeon that is Russia's main problem in this sector. Experts say that illegal harvesting of black caviar amounts to 90% of the domestic turnover of this valuable product. The state-proclaimed monopoly does not stop the barbaric destruction of valuable fish species. The risk of illegal procurement is economically justified: for gourmets, black beluga caviar is the most expensive substance in the world. For a gram of this delicacy produced in Iran, you need to shell out about $ 35.
Aye yes cream!
In 1950, one of the facilities of the US space agency NASA tested rocket fuel. The works were conducted in the conditions of the "space race" with the USSR, so the accidents were not uncommon. As a result of one of such incidents scientist Max Huber received serious burns, leaving unpleasant scars on his face. Not accepting these blows of fate, he began independent research to find a means to eliminate traces of skin damage. He spent thousands of experiments, experiencing the impact of hundreds of components. As a result, the cream he received helped the scientist get rid of the scars. A unique healing effect on the skin invented by the father of the composition was appreciated by Huber's daughter, who suggested setting up its production. Now this cream is included in the top 10 most expensive substances in the world - its gram costs $ 70.
The exact composition of the ointment is a trade secret. The effectiveness of the legendary cosmetic product, which was produced under the brand Crème de la Mer, is based on the nutritional properties of special seaweed, strengthened by a whole complex of vitamins.
Best friends of girls
The 12 most expensive substances in the world, besides a unique cream for skin care, include expensive delicacy, rare and precious metals. But most of the items on this list are occupied by precious stones.
The price of the most expensive minerals for 1 gram
- $ 3250 - in Africa, not far from the famous mountain Kilimanjaro is the world's only mineral deposit of tanzanite, named from the country where it is mined. After treatment, it acquires a unique blue-violet hue. The famous stone from the movie "Titanic" is tanzanite.
- $ 10,000 - red crystals - red beryl from Utah - even more valuable type of stones. It does not exceed 10 carats (2 grams) and is present in a very small number of collections.
- 20000 $ - tiaffeite - a rare stone with a lilac shade, occurs a million times less often than a diamond. It has no exact place of origin, only a few specimens have been found in Ceylon and in China.
- 65000 $ - the diamond has learned to grow artificially, it is the most sturdy material widely used in cutting and grinding tools. Industrial diamond deposits are on almost all continents of the planet, but its value is not reduced.
- 300000 $ - only one mineral is more expensive than a diamond - peynit. This is the most rare stone in the world. For the whole history of their found a few, and only two had full transparency and were faceted.
Some watches and trinkets, which have a specific, often green, backlight, contain particles of one of the most expensive substances on the planet - tritium. This isotope of hydrogen has radioactivity, which causes a special phosphor coating to glow. To maintain the glow, no additional power supplies are required, and a noticeable loss in the intensity of the backlight can be seen not earlier than in half a century.
Superheavy hydrogen - tritium - is produced in nuclear reactors, by intensive irradiation of one of the lithium isotopes. In addition to industrial use, this substance is an essential component of nuclear weapons, which must be periodically replenished to support its combat capability. The cost of 1 g of tritium is $ 30000.
Chemical elements of artificial origin
The list of the 10 most expensive substances in the world, which are of practical value, is headed by California-silver-white radioactive metal, artificially obtained at two facilities in the world: one in Moscow and the other in the USA. For one of the options for the production of californium, another metal, included in the list of the most expensive substances - plutonium, is needed.
In nature plutonium is present in negligible quantities, so it is also produced at nuclear facilities from natural or enriched uranium. In total, about 1.5 tons are accumulated in the world in the form of constituent atomic charges and fuel for nuclear power plants.
The cost of a gram of plutonium is $ 4000. To obtain from it another chemical element - californium, plutonium is subjected to intensive neutron irradiation for 8 years in a nuclear reactor. From the resulting products of irradiation as a result of the chemical reaction, californium is isolated. As a result, it turns out that the cost of a gram of this metal is $ 6500000. In a year it is produced only a few milligrams, which are used as a source of radiation in the treatment of tumors, in scientific experiments on nuclear fission, in the production of detectors and sensors for different purposes.