Since childhood we have become accustomed to hearing that the most reliable source of knowledge is a book. In fact, there are much more sources. With their help, we develop and learn to live in the world around us. What are the sources of knowledge? Which of them will be useful in geography?
Knowledge and knowledge
In a broad sense, knowledge is a form of representation of the world, the image or attitude of a person to the actual reality. In a narrower sense, knowledge is information, skills and skills that a person owns and that are based on awareness.
The process of obtaining knowledge is called knowledge. It can be sensual, rational and intuitive. Sensual cognition occurs with the help of sight and sensations (taste, hearing, touch, smell). Rational is based on thinking, it includes understanding, reasoning and inference.
Knowledge is the union of sensory and rational cognition. The main methods of obtaining it are observation and experience. These are the oldest sources of knowledge. Primitive and ancient people did not have books and computers. They studied the world, watching him. So, they made inferences, revealed for themselves certain patterns.
Simultaneously, an experienced way was used. Trying to hold a sharp stone on a wooden stick, the man realized that you can sharpen it and use it as a weapon or a tool for hunting. Thanks to attempts, people obtained fire, welded food for the first time, planted the plant, tamed the animal and developed to the modern level.
Speech as a source of knowledge
At the initial stage of human formation, memory was the only place for storing information. All the thoughts, information and conclusions that, perhaps, people did, remained in their own heads. With the advent of related speech and language, it became possible not only to reflect on something, but also to share it with others.
Observation of the phenomena of nature spawned many questions. Why does it rain, does the sun shine or does the bird fly? To explain these phenomena, people come up with myths, fairy tales, legends and beliefs. This is how people create a certain idea of the world, which they convey to the younger generation.
The oral source of knowledge reflects the vision of the world and the life of the people. Thanks to him, intergenerational communication is carried out. Of these, folklorists, ethnographers and historians can understand how people lived before, what they believed, what problems they had. Language and speech are of great importance in the modern world. With their help we communicate with people, learn news, adopt traditions and norms in behavior.
An important source of knowledge is material culture. For the first time it manifested itself in the form of rock carvings and statuettes. Even in the Paleolithic people painted themselves and animals on the walls in caves, carved from natural materials totems, amulets and small sculptures. Subsequently, these findings became the most important evidence of the development of ancient people.
The main sources of knowledge for anthropologists and historians are objects of everyday life, tools, ornaments, religious attributes, weapons, coins. They report the most important data on the nature and structure of ancient society.
Material sources are the remains of people. On them, biologists and anthropologists find out what people looked like, what kind of work they did, and what diseases they had been exposed to. The remains of architectural structures give information about the ancient architecture. Much of this knowledge is not only familiarizing, but also used in modern spheres of life.
Developing language skills, a person begins to feel the need to somehow record his speech. For this he comes up with special signs, which bear a certain meaning. So writing arises. The first records are cut out on wooden and clay tablets, carved on stones. Then comes parchment, papyrus and paper.
Attempts to create the letter are observed 9 thousand years ago. Some of the oldest written sources are the Egyptian hieroglyphs, the Sumerian cuneiform , the Babylonian Code of Hamurapi, written by a Cretan letter, etc.
Initially, the letter was created manually and was not available to everyone. Mainly religious texts and epistles were written down, as well as modern events. The invention of printing made the writing more accessible. Now the most common source of knowledge is the Internet. It can also be considered a part of writing, although the text is distributed virtually, electronically.
Sources of geographical knowledge
Geography is one of the most ancient sciences in the world. She studies the landscapes, natural spheres and shells of our planet, the location of various objects on Earth. This is eloquently reported by its name, which translates as "land description".
The very first and simple sources of geographical knowledge are hikes. People moved around the planet, observed and collected information about the location of rivers, lakes, cities, mountains. They saw what they saw and sketched, thereby creating new sources of knowledge.
As a type of drawing, maps appeared. With the development of mathematics and physics, they improved, became more precise and understandable. So, many geographers used the workings of their ancestors, using maps and books. Until now, they remain the most faithful sources of knowledge in this discipline.