The history of aviation knows a very large number of aircraft of various types and types. All the names of the aircraft are unlikely to even be listed. However, it is possible to cover the main models. Let's find out how the aircraft is classified, their types, types, names, too, will be considered.
Let's take a look at the list of names of major foreign aircraft manufacturers alphabetically. The list includes both existing companies and those that have been abolished:
- Aérospatiale (France).
- Airbus (EU).
- Boeing (USA).
- British Aerospace (United Kingdom).
- British Aircraft (Great Britain).
- Heinkel (Germany).
- Junkers (Germany).
- McDonnell Douglas (USA).
- Messerschmitt (Germany).
The names of aircraft in alphabetical order, issued in the USSR and the countries of the post-Soviet space, are given below:
- An (Antonov).
- And (Polikarpov).
- Il (Ilyushin).
- La (Lavochkin).
- LaGG (Lavochkin, Gorbunov, Gudkov).
- Li (Lisunov).
- MiG (Mikoyan and Gurevich).
- By (Polikarpov).
- Su (Dry).
- Tu (Tupolev).
- Yak (Yakovlev).
How do planes classify?
First of all, we learn what kind of aircraft are. The names of aircraft can tell a lot, but the classification tells us even more. How are planes classified? Do this according to the following parameters:
- By appointment;
- Number of engines;
- Type of engines;
- Type of the chassis;
- Number of wings;
- The size of the fuselage;
- Type of management;
- Form of take-off.
At some of the above points, we now dwell in more detail.
Classification according to purpose
It is considered the most common. According to this indicator, all aircraft operated on two major types: military and civilian. In addition, each of these groups has its own subdivision into smaller categories.
In accordance with the specific functionality, military aircraft are classified into the following profile categories: bombers, interceptor aircraft, fighter aircraft, ground attack aircraft, military transport ships, fighter-bombers, and reconnaissance aircraft.
In civil aviation devices for flights are divided into the following categories: passenger, agricultural, transport, postal, experimental, etc.
The task of the bomber is to defeat the targets on the ground. They do this with the help of bombs and rockets.
Now let's find out the names of military aircraft. Among the bombers can be identified such models of domestic production: Su-24, Tu-160, Su-34. In the years of the Second World War, the domestic bomber Pe-2 was very popular. But the very first can be called the famous "Ilya of Murom" - the creation of the great designer Igor Sikorsky. This device took off for the first time in the air in 1913. In the era of the First World War, it was converted to a bomber. Ilya Muromets planes were also used during the Civil War.
Among the foreign vehicles can be identified modern American strategic bombers Northrop B-2 Spirit, XB-70 Valkyrie, Rockwell B-1 Lancer, B-2, B-52 Stratofortress, aircraft manufactured in the USA 30's Boeing B-17 and Martin B- 10, German bombers of the Second World War era Junkers Ju 86 and Heinkel He 111.
The main task of these vehicles is the destruction of aircraft and other objects that are in the air.
The names of fighter planes to a military expert will also tell a lot. The most famous Soviet models of the Second World War period are LaGG-3, I-15 bis, MiG-3, I-16, I-153, Yak-1. In the same era, German aircraft Bf.109, Bf.110 and Fw 190, as well as reactive Me.262, Me.163 Komet and He 162 Volksjager, became world famous.
Among the Soviet fighters of a later era, we should single out MiG-31, Su-27 and MiG-29. Currently, the sky is filled with modern Russian aircraft. Their names are well known to aviation technicians. These are fighters of the generation 4 ++ Su-35 and Mig-35.
Of the modern American models, the world's first fighter of generation number five Boeing F-22, as well as earlier models F-4 and F-15 Eagle, are distinguished.
They combine the functions of the first two categories of aircraft we described. That is, destroy both air and ground targets.
The first fighter-bombers are German Me.262, a modified model of the British fighter Supermarine Spitfire, De Havilland Mosquito, as well as the Soviet Yak-9.
Among modern jet aircraft, it is necessary to distinguish domestic MiG-23B, Su-17M, MiG-27 and American model F-105.
They are a separate subset of fighters destined for the destruction of enemy bombers. Unlike conventional fighters, they are equipped with powerful radar equipment.
Among Soviet interceptors, the following aircraft names are known: Su-15, Su-9, Tu-128, Yak-28, MiG-25. From American models, you can designate F-16 and Grumman F-14. Also, the world famous Japanese aircraft Mitsubishi F-2 and British interceptor Panavia Tornado ADV.
Their task is to support ground forces from the air.
The most famous stormtroopers of the Second World War are the Il-2 and Il-10 aircraft. At the same time, the enemy used Hs 129 and Ju 87 for similar purposes. Among the modern ground-attack aircraft, the names of the Su-25, F / A-18, A-10 aircraft should be highlighted.
Military transport vehicles
The main tasks of military transport aircraft are the delivery of military cargo and personnel.
The aircraft of this class currently in service in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation are Il-76, An-26, An-124 and An-12. Among the American analogues are Douglas YC-15, Boeing C-17, Boeing C-97 and Boeing E-8.
Overview of civil aviation models will begin with them. This type of air vehicle, as is clear from the name, is intended for the carriage of passengers.
The first serial aircraft carrying civilians is the same domestic "Ilya Muromets", which in the future was converted to a bomber. The first flight from St. Petersburg to Kiev with sixteen passengers, he committed in the distant 1914.
The most popular airliner during the existence of aviation is the American apparatus Douglas DC-3, who made the first flight back in 1935. Its various modifications are still used today. For example, the Soviet variant of this aircraft was the Li-2.
Above, the first airplanes were described. The names of the main competitors in the modern market of passenger aviation are Boeing and Airbus.
The American company Boeing originated back in 1916. Since then, it has been producing aircraft, mainly for civil aviation, although there are military transport models. The most famous names for passenger aircraft of this company are Boeing 737, Boeing 747, Boeing 747-8, Boeing 777 and Boeing 787.
The first of the above models was released in 1968, and by today is the most massive of all passenger aircraft. Boeing 747, produced a year later, is a pioneer among wide-body airliners. Boeing 747-8 - passenger aircraft with the longest length. It was released in 2010. Today, the Boeing 777, which has been produced since 1994, gained the most popularity on the market of passenger aviation. The newest model of the corporation at the moment is the Boeing 787 of the year of creation.
As stated earlier, the main competitor of Boeing in the world market is the European company Airbus, whose central office is in France. It was founded much later than its American rival - in 1970. The most famous names for the aircraft of this company are the A300, A320, A380 and A350 XWB.
Released in 1972, the A300 is the very first wide-body airplane on two engines. At the A320 in 1988, for the first time in the world, an electrical remote control form was used. The A380, which first skyrocketed in 2005, is the largest in the world. It is capable of taking on board up to 480 passengers. The latest development of the company is the A350 XWB. Its main task was to compete with the previously released Boeing 787. And with this task, this airliner successfully manages, bypassing its rival for profitability.
Soviet passenger aircraft
At a decent level, the Soviet passenger aviation industry was also represented. Most of the models are Aeroflot planes. The names of the main brands are: Tu, Il, An and Yak.
The first domestic jet airliner is the Tu-104, produced in 1955. The Tu-154, the first take-off of which was made in 1972, is considered to be the most mass Soviet passenger aircraft. The Tupolev-144 of the 1968 issue gained its legendary status, as it is the first airliner in the world to break through the sound barrier. He could develop a speed of up to 2,5 thousand km / h, and this record by our time is not beaten. At the moment, the last operating model of the airliner developed by the Tupolev Design Bureau is the Tu-204 of the 1990 release, as well as its Tu-214 modification.
Naturally, apart from Tu there are other "Aeroflot" aircraft. Names of the most popular: Il-18, Il-114, Il-103, An-24, An-28, Yak-40 and Yak-42.
Airliners of other countries of the world
In addition to the above, there are noteworthy models and other manufacturers of passenger aircraft.
The British airliner De Havilland Comet, released in 1949, is the world's first jet airliner. The French-British airliner Concorde, developed in 1969, became widely known. It went down in history due to the fact that it is the second successful attempt (after the Tu-144) to create a supersonic passenger aircraft. And so far, these two airliners in this regard are unique, since so far no one has been able to produce a passenger aircraft suitable for mass exploitation, capable of moving faster than sound.
The main purpose of air transport aircraft is the carriage of goods over long distances.
Among the vehicles of this type, it is necessary to designate western models of passenger aircraft modified for transport needs: Douglas MD-11F, Airbus A330-200F, Airbus A300-600ST and Boeing 747-8F.
But most of all in the production of transport aircraft became famous Soviet, and now Ukrainian design office named after Antonov. It produces airplanes that constantly beat world records in terms of carrying capacity: An-22 1965 (load-carrying capacity - 60 tons), An-124 1984 (load-carrying capacity - 120 tons), An-225 1988 (takes on board 253, 8 t). The last model belongs to a still not broken record for carrying capacity. In addition, it was planned to use it for the transportation of Soviet shuttles "Buran", but with the collapse of the USSR the project remained unrealized.
In the Russian Federation, with transport aviation, everything is not so rosy. The names of Russian aircraft are as follows: IL-76, IL-112 and IL-214. But the problem is that the IL-76 produced now was developed back in Soviet times, in 1971, and the rest are planned to be launched only in 2017.
There are flying machines, whose tasks include processing fields with pesticides, herbicides and other chemicals. This type of aircraft is called agricultural.
Of the Soviet models of these vehicles are known U-2 and An-2, which because of the specific application of the people called "corn".
Subdivision on speed
In addition to the classification of aircraft for the purpose, which we studied in detail above, there are other types of ranking. These include the classification of the speed of flight. On this basis, aircraft are divided into the following categories: subsonic, transonic aircraft, supersonic aircraft and hypersonic aircraft.
It is not difficult to understand that subsonic planes move slower than sound. Transonic airplanes fly at speeds close to sound, supersonic overcame the sound barrier, and hypersonic planes exceed this figure by more than five times.
At the moment, the fastest in the world is the experimental hypersonic device from the USA X-43A in 2001. It can pick up 11,200 km / h. In second place is his compatriot X-15, released back in 1959. The speed is 7,273 km / h. If we talk not about experimental devices, but about those planes that perform specific tasks, then here the primacy of the American SR-71, capable of speeding up to 3530 km / h. Among the domestic devices should be allocated supersonic MiG-25. Its maximum speed can reach up to 3000 km / h.
In passenger aviation, things are much worse with speed. To date, only two supersonic airliners have been produced: the domestic Tu-144 (1968) and the Franco-English Concorde (1969). The first of them can develop high-speed indicators up to 2,5 thousand km / h, which is a record of civil aviation, but this is only the tenth place out of all-purpose aircraft. It should also be noted that at the moment there are no supersonic airliners that are in operation, since the use of the Tu-144 was abandoned back in 1978, and the use of Concorde was stopped in 2003.
Hypersonic passenger aircraft never existed at all. True, now there are several projects of both domestic and foreign design bureaus for the production of a hypersonic airliner. Among them, the most popular is the European ZEHST. This aircraft will be able to develop a speed of up to 5.0 thousand km / h, but the timing of its creation is unclear. In Russia there are two similar projects - Tu-244 and Tu-444, but at the moment they are both frozen.
Other types of classification
By the number of engines, planes have a ranging from one to twelve engines.
According to the type of engine, aircraft are divided into the following categories: electric engine, piston, turboprop, jet, missile, as well as vehicles with a combined engine.
According to the type of chassis, the classification of aircraft is as follows: wheeled, ski, air cushion, caterpillar, float, amphibians. Naturally, the most common are aircraft with a wheeled chassis.
By mass, aircraft are divided into super-light, light vehicles, medium-weight aircraft, heavy and heavyweight.
According to the number of wings, in the direction of reducing their number, planes are divided into polyplanes, triplanes, biplanes, polutoraplan and monoplanes.
There is also a classification according to the size of the fuselage: narrow-bodied and wide-body.
By classification of the type of control, aircraft are subdivided into manned and drones.
In the form of take-off, all aircraft can be divided into the following categories: vertical take-off, horizontal and short.
We learned what the classification of aircraft is, their types, types, names, too, were considered. As you can see, there is a very large number of models performing different functions with very different technical characteristics. The world of aviation is really multifaceted, and in one review it will not be possible to describe absolutely all of its aspects.
Nevertheless, we can give a general idea on this issue by describing the most famous aircraft that have entered the history. Types and names, despite their large number, still really systematize in a certain way, in order to clarify the essence of this topic.