The life of this poet lasted incomplete 37 years, but it contained a lot. He was one of the leaders of the avant-garde art, while officially declared a loyal supporter of the general line of the party, a staunch fighter of the ideological front. His poetry is a brilliant combination of a search for a new form and eternal values in content, a powerful tribune voice and subtle lyrical nuances.
Born July 7, 1893 in the family of Vladimir Mayakovsky, who ran the forestry office in the small Georgian village of Bagdadi near Kutaisi, and Alexandra Alekseevna Pavlenko, a native of the Kuban. Father's grandfather was a Cossack captain, who received the nobility.
The chronological table of Mayakovsky contains many testimonies about the early abilities of the future poet: he independently learned to read, exhibits great interest and inclination towards literature and drawing, remembers many poems, fluently speaks Georgian.
1902 - enters the senior preparatory class of the Kutaisi gymnasium, showing good preparation especially in Russian and drawing.
1905 - actively interested in revolutionary events, participating in gatherings and demonstrations. Loses interest in learning.
February 19, 1906 suddenly died from the infection of blood. Mayakovsky.
1906-1910. In Moscow
The chronological table of Mayakovsky's early Moscow period - studying in the gymnasium, fascination with Marxism, joining the RSDLP (b), arrest:
1906, August, the Mayakovsky family arrives in Moscow, where Vladimir's older sister Lyudmila is studying.
1906, September begins to study in the Fifth Classical Gymnasium. He studies unevenly, gets acquainted with the students-participants of the revolutionary movement. He is fond of reading philosophical books, studying Marxism.
1908 - joins the Russian Social-Democratic Party of the Bolsheviks, receives the party nickname "Comrade Constantine," and drops his studies at the gymnasium. Suspected of distributing proclamations and being subjected to the first arrest. Issued for lack of evidence.
1909 - Wishing to continue his education, he entered the Stroganov School, but in July he was again arrested on suspicion of escaping political prisoners. In the Butyrka prison he reads fiction, including symbolist poets. He tries to write himself.
1910 - The family seeks the liberation of Vladimir as a minor. He is engaged in painting preparing for entering the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture.
The chronological table of the Mayakovsky period of the beginning of creative activity - acquaintance with D. Burliuk, the first performances and publications, participation in the movement of the futurists:
1911, September - Comes to the MUZHVIZ. He gets acquainted with the artist and poet David Burliuk and other futurists.
1912 - introduces Burliuk with his poems, he evaluates them very highly. Performs with the first public reading of his poems in the futuristic cafe "Stray Dog".
1912, December - publishes poems in the almanac "Slap in the face of public taste".
1913, March - the almanac "The Treasurer of the Three" comes out with poetry and drawings by Mayakovsky.
1913, May - the lithographic edition of the collection "I" comes out
1913, December - participates in the collective speeches of the Futurists, the first presentation of the tragedy "Vladimir Mayakovsky" took place in St. Petersburg.
1914, January-March - participates in performances of futurists throughout the country, from Kazan to Tiflis. Excluded from the school, one of the reasons - belonging to Futurism.
1914, November - after the beginning of the war, he receives a refusal to obtain a certificate of trustworthiness, necessary for entering a volunteer into the army in force.
1915-1919. Mayakovsky and the Revolution
The chronological table of Mayakovsky pre-revolutionary and post-October time - acquaintance with Gorky, with the Briks, a call to military service, participation in revolutionary events, "Windows of the GROWTH":
1915, February - acquaintance with A.M. Bitter.
1915, July - Acquaintance with Lilia Yurievna Brik and her husband.
1915, September - conscription for military service. Thanks to the efforts of Gorky, he was appointed a draft company of the Military Automobile Company in Petrograd as a draftsman - the service takes only a part of the day.
1916 - during the year the poems "Flute-spine", "War and Peace", "Man", many poems are published.
1917, spring - actively participates in the events of the February Revolution: speaks at meetings, writes appeals, is elected to the Union of Artists of Petrograd.
1917, autumn - after the October Revolution stands for the cooperation of artists with the Soviet government.
1918, spring - wrote screenplays, was shot in the cinema.
1918, November - the premiere of the play "The Mystery Buff."
1919, October - the beginning of work in Moscow on the "windows of" GROWTH "- until February 1922 created 400 posters and 600 texts.
1920-1923. The leader of the left art Mayakovsky
The chronological table of the life and work of the period of the Civil War - the struggle for new poetry, a new theater, a new cinema, the first trips to Europe, the magazine "LEF":
1920 - the first public reading of the poem "150 000 000", during the whole year a lot of speeches in debates, with lectures, at rallies.
1921 - production of "Mystery Buff" by Meyerhold.
1922, May - the first trip abroad - to Riga.
1922, October - the output of the collected works.
1922, October - December - a trip to Germany and France, acquaintance with leading artists and writers: Picasso, Leger, Braque, Cocteau, N. Goncharova, M. Larionov, and others.
1923, March - the first issue of the journal "Lef" was published under the editorship of Mayakovsky with the poem "About It", numerous poems and articles on the theme of the new art.
1923, October - writes promotional texts for Mosselprom.
Mayakovsky had many in his life. Chronological table of life and creativity of the time of active trips around the country and the world - performances on the country, trips to Europe, "the discovery of America":
1924, spring - summer - trips with performances in Ukraine, Crimea.
1924, autumn-winter - a trip to Paris.
1925 May - begins the trip of Mayakovsky to Europe, from where he goes by boat to Mexico and the USA.
1925, July-December - meets in New York with D. Burliuk, with whom he travels in America.
1926-1928. Creative maturity
The chronological table of Mayakovsky - briefly about this time it can be said that this is a period of vital and creative maturity:
1926, January-February, June-August, October-November - numerous lecture tours around the country, as well as to Poland, Czechoslovakia, Germany, France. Main topics:
- New art.
- How to do poetry.
- My discovery of America.
1927 - the output of the magazine "New LEF".
1928 - a separate edition of the poem "Good."
1928 December - the play "Bedbug" is over, work is begun on the performance: Meyerhold's direction, the design of Kukryniksov, music - Shostakovich.
1929-1930. Tragedy of care
The chronological table of Mayakovsky's life in recent years: harsh criticism from opponents, misunderstanding of relatives, crisis in personal relationships:
1929, January - many of the poet's performances were canceled due to a throat disease.
1929, February - the premiere of the play "Bedbug" at the Meyerhold Theater is mixed: they praise the production and severely criticize the play itself.
1929, May - acquaintance with actress Veronica Polonskaya - the last love of the poet.
1930, February - March - the exhibition "20 years of work" alternately opens in the Moscow Writers' Club, in the Leningrad House of Press, in the Central House of the Komsomol of Krasnaya Presnya. It is almost ignored by officials and writers.
1930, March - the premiere of the "Baths" at the Meyerhold Theater is accompanied by a failure.
1930, April - from the magazine "The Seal and Revolution" published in the first days of the month, a portrait of Mayakovsky with a greeting to him on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of creative activity was cut out on the orders of the leadership.
The reasons for the suicide of the poet are usually associated with his intricate relationship with Lilia Brik, who had almost mystical power over him, and with Veronika Polonskaya, who was married, but with whom he wanted to start a normal family life. They mention Tatyana Yakovleva, who lived in Paris and is called his true love. The suddenness of the tragic departure gave birth to many versions, including the murder of the poet. Chronological table Mayakovsky, briefly narrating about the last days of the poet's life:
April 12, 1930, he wrote a famous farewell letter with words about a love boat that broke about life ...
April 14, 1930:
8.00 - he goes to the telegraph and gives a telegram to T. Yakovleva in Paris: "Mayakovsky shot himself."
8.30 - he calls in Veronika Polonskaya and takes her to her apartment.
9.00 - they come to Mayakovsky's working apartment in Lubyanka Passage.
9.30 - the book-keeper-courier, who brought books ordered by the poet, accidentally saw a poet kneeling before a young woman.
10.45 - Polonskaya leaves the room, saying that she is late for rehearsal at the theater, promising to return in the evening. On the stairs, she hears a shot that rang out in the room. Returning back, she saw Mayakovsky lying on the floor, with a bloodstain on his shirt in the region of the heart. He died before the arrival of an emergency ambulance.
Such is the biography of Mayakovsky. The chronological table of perpetuating the memory of the poet is also of interest.
The end of the complex relationship to the personality of Mayakovsky on the part of the official authorities was laid by Stalin himself, who in 1935 said: "Mayakovsky was and remains the best, most talented poet of our Soviet era." Immediately after this, the poet's name was given to the streets in many cities of the Union, libraries, cinemas, etc. In addition, the name of Mayakovsky received:
1935 - the former Triumphal Square in Moscow;
1938 - Zamoskvoretskaya metro station of the Moscow metro;
1946 - a village in the Kaliningrad region;
1954 - Moscow Academic Drama Theater;
1967 - the station of the St. Petersburg metro;
1967 - a small planet.