Approximately III millennium BC is considered a transition from stone as the main industrial substance to bronze. The period of perestroika is considered to be the copper age. After all, this connection at that time was the most important in construction, in the manufacture of household items, utensils and other processes.
To date, copper has not lost its relevance and is still considered a very important metal, often used in different needs. Is copper a body or a substance? What properties does it have and why? Let's try to understand further.
General characteristics of the element copper
As a chemical element, copper has its location in the periodic system. It is the following.
- Fourth big period, first row.
- The first group, an auxiliary subgroup.
- Sequence number 29.
- The atomic weight is 63,546.
- The electronic configuration of the outer layer is expressed by the formula 3d 10 4s 1 .
The element has two stable natural isotopes with mass numbers 63 and 65. The Latin name of the cuprum element, which explains its chemical symbol Cu. In the formulas is read as "kuprum", the Russian name is copper.
Is copper a body or a substance?
To answer this question, you should first determine the concepts of "matter" and "body." They are studied at the school levels, since they are fundamental. From the point of view of the science of chemistry and physics, matter is considered to be all materials from which certain objects are made. That is, all chemical compounds of both organic and inorganic nature can serve as examples of substances.
The body is the object itself, which consists precisely of some substance. They can be artificially constructed by a person, or they can be of natural origin. Examples of bodies: nails, windows, plates, table, cupboard, flower pot and so on.
To distinguish between these two concepts, we give a few comparative examples.
- Sugar is a substance, lollipop is a body.
- Iron is a substance, a nail is a body.
- The window is the body, the glass is the substance.
It is obvious from these considerations that the question: "Is copper a body or a substance?" - the answer is unambiguous. This stuff. If we are talking about a copper plate or a copper ring, then, of course, we should speak of them as a body.
From the point of view of chemistry, copper is a substance belonging to the category of metals. It has a number of very valuable properties that underlie the widespread use of this compound.
Simple substance copper is a non-ferrous metal
As we have already indicated, copper is metal. However, not all representatives of this group of substances are identical in their characteristics. There are soft and hard, white and yellow, red metals and so on. Copper refers to colored soft metals.
The electronic structure of its atom allows you to pinpoint whether copper is metal or non-metal. After all, at the external level, it has only one electron, which means that it is capable of giving it easily, exhibiting typical metallic reducing properties. Consequently, there can be no doubt that it should belong to the category of metals. The same is said about the physical properties of its simple matter.
Is copper a substance or a body? Completely verify the correctness of the answer can only be considered its physical properties. If we talk about this element as a simple substance, then it has the following set of properties.
- Red metal.
- Soft and very malleable.
- Excellent heat conductor and electrical conductor.
- Not refractory, the melting point is 1084.5 0 C.
- The density is 8.9 g / cm 3 .
- In nature it occurs mainly in native form.
Thus, it turns out that copper is a substance, and it has been known since ancient times. Based on it, many architectural structures have been created since ancient times, utensils and household items are manufactured.
From the point of view of chemical activity, copper is a body or substance with a low ability to interact. There are two main degrees of oxidation of this element, which it exhibits in compounds. It:
It is very rare to find substances in which these values are replaced by +3.
So, copper can interact with:
- Carbon dioxide;
- Hydrochloric acid and some other compounds only at very high temperatures.
All this is explained by the fact that a protective oxide film is formed on the metal surface. It protects it from further oxidation and gives stability and inactivity.
Of simple substances, copper is able to interact with:
Often forms complex compounds or double salts. Virtually all complex compounds of this element, in addition to oxides, are poisonous substances. Those molecules that form monovalent copper are easily oxidized to divalent representatives.
Areas of use
Copper is a mixture or pure substance, which in any of these states finds wide application in industry and everyday life. Several main branches of copper and pure metal compounds can be identified.
- Leather industry, which uses some salt.
- Manufacture of fur and silk.
- Manufacture of fertilizers, plant protection products against pests (copper sulfate).
- Copper alloys are widely used in the automotive industry.
- Shipbuilding, aircraft.
- Electrical engineering, in which copper is used, thanks to good corrosion resistance and high electrical and thermal conductivity.
- Different instrument making.
- Manufacturing of utensils and household items of economic importance.
Obviously, despite the long hundreds of years, the metal in question has only strengthened its positions and proved its consistency and indispensability in application.
Copper alloys and their properties
There are many copper-based alloys. It itself is characterized by high technical characteristics, as it is easily liable to forging and rolling, is light and strong enough. However, when you add certain components, the properties are significantly improved.
In this case, the question should be asked: "Is copper a substance or a physical body when it comes to its alloys?" The answer is this: this substance. All the same, it is just that until it is made of any physical body, that is, a certain product.
What alloys of copper are there?
- Almost equal combination of copper and zinc in one composition is commonly called brass. This alloy is highly resistant and resistant to chemical attack.
- Tin bronze is a combination of copper and tin.
- Melchior - nickel and copper in the ratio of 20/80 of 100. Used for making jewelry.
- Constantan is a combination of nickel, copper and manganese additive.
Not so important, copper is a substance or a body. Significantly different. What role does copper play in living organisms? It turns out, very important. Thus, the ions of the metal under consideration perform the following functions.
- Participate in the conversion of iron ions into hemoglobin.
- They are active participants in the processes of growth and reproduction.
- Allow to assimilate the amino acid tyrosine, therefore, affect the manifestation of the color of hair, skin.
If the body does not receive the given element in the right amount, then unpleasant diseases can arise. For example, anemia, baldness, painful leanness and so on.