A special position among the lower plants is occupied by green algae, which include chlorella. This is a certain kind of vegetation that can exist in different conditions, for example, in water, on land, etc. According to scientists, representatives of this largest group of algae (there are still brown, red, golden and others) are the ancestors of higher modern plants. Amazing is unicellular chlorella not only this. In 1960, she was one of the first to visit space. Chlorella is a kind of plant that is a permanent satellite of sailors on submarines. Biologists refer it to the family of chlorella (Chlorellaceae). The most common is Chlorella vulgaris. It is found in puddles, in small ponds, and even in ditches. What is the secret of its popularity and wide use?
Brief description of the species
Chlorella is a microscopic alga. The body size (thallus or thallus) of the lowest plant is 2 or more microns. It can be considered only under a microscope. It is positioned as a self-functioning organism, represented by a single cell. Chlorella is so small that in 1 cubic centimeter of water can accommodate up to several million such representatives of the flora.
As previously sounded, chlorella is unicellular, its shape can be either ellipsoidal or spherical. The microorganism is covered with a specific cellulose membrane, which is sufficiently thin and smooth. Inside consists of one chloroplast and a nucleus. They are located near the wall. The cytoplasm plays the role of a storehouse where starch and fats accumulate.
What was the ancient chlorella at the dawn of life on earth? It is a giant supplier of oxygen to the atmosphere. In the aquatic environment, it is also indispensable, in particular, it is responsible for filling with nutrients, which, accordingly, allows accumulating enough energy for living organisms. Its green color is due to the chlorophyll present in it. For a unique process of photosynthesis, it needs, like any other plant, water, carbon dioxide and sunlight. Chlorella is a heat-loving plant and performs its incredibly significant function at a temperature of about 28 o C.
In addition to chlorophyll, the alga has other parts of the thallus: the membrane, the semiliquid contents of the cell and the nucleus. But the bodies of movement, like many other of her fellows, she does not. Algae passively swims in fresh water in the form of phytoplankton.
Method of reproduction
Reproduction of chlorella occurs exclusively asexually, under favorable conditions, by dividing the cells in half. Responsible for this complex process is the core. Preliminary, at the stage of preparing the cells for reproduction, its organs are doubled. It increases in size, then the outer shell is stretched and torn. From one parent, two daughter cells are obtained. For a while in the cycle of chlorella comes a break, and then everything is repeated anew.
Due to its simple structure and photosynthetic function, the chlorella chlorella has mastered not only aquatic, but also other habitats: air, soil and even organism. Some species of zoochlorella co-exist with other organisms in the status of "lodgers".
The main wealth of chlorella for humans is its fantastic composition. As shown by the studies of biochemists, the inner environment of her cell is almost half composed of protein, 1/3 part - of sugar. The protein in chlorella is almost 6 times greater than in wheat. In addition, it contains vitamins, fats, mineral salts and other organic substances. And the composition of algae is a variable variable, it can vary depending on the conditions of its content. Consequently, the cultivation of chlorella in artificially created reservoirs or at home can significantly alter the plant. For example, with the help of certain illumination control the components of the composition of the cell, specifying the necessary indicators.
In Japan and other countries, chlorella is widely used as a useful additive to food. Its release is arranged in a variety of forms (extract, powder, tablets). Each pharmaceutical form has its own specific advantages, so before using, you need to read the instructions for use. Medical products containing green algae increase immunity. The testing and monitoring of its use as a treatment for cancer patients is being conducted. Chlorella, the use of which improves the work of yeast, is often used in bakery production. Such products are lush, tasty and smell for a long time.
Due to active reproduction in 1 liter of water, up to 60 grams of algae can be formed in a pure residue. It will be enough for a person to have 500 grams per day of nutrients contained in chlorella. Accordingly, a 10-liter container, populated with green algae, can fully satisfy the need of a person who is in a closed space, not only in food, but also in oxygen for breathing and vital activity.
It turned out to be an indispensable chlorella in the composition of mixed fodders for cattle, pigs, birds, fish and even bees. The yield of wheat or potatoes is significantly inferior to the "harvest" of algae from an equivalent plantation. It is also remarkable that there is no waste from it - no straw, no leaves, no roots. All her small body is one solid nutrients.
Chlorella also serves as an indicator of contaminated water bodies. It is used as a biological treatment of sewage, sewage and natural natural water bodies.
Because of the unique structure and functions, the "baby" is given huge hopes, and simple green algae with success justifies them.