Ukrainian energy has in its composition power generating companies of all possible types - TPP, HPP, NPP. The stability of the work of the first type is strongly influenced by the current economic situation, the deterioration of which is due to a reduction in the supply of coal from the Donbass.
Determination of TPPs
So, TPP is a power plant whose power units first convert the chemical energy of the burned hydrocarbon fuel (coal, gas, fuel oil) to the thermal energy of water vapor, then into the mechanical energy of the rotors of the drive turbines and synchronous generators, and finally to the electrical energy produced through Winding stators of generators in the electrical network.
TPPs can be both large power plants with a capacity of several thousand mW, and relatively small power facilities ranging from several hundred kW to several mW.
Since their work is always accompanied by the burning of hydrocarbon fuels with the release of a large volume of flue gases into the atmosphere , the TPP is a serious factor in the pollution of the natural environment. Therefore, the work of these enterprises is always under close scrutiny of both public environmental control services and the public.
Classification of TPPs
It is performed according to the principle of the design of their power aggregates. There are several types of them.
1. Kotloturbinnye TPP - this ES with an obligatory stage of production of water vapor. As part of their power units there are steam boilers and steam turbines. Among them are:
• Condensation ES (CES). In the Soviet period they were called state regional power stations (GRES). They produce only electricity.
• Cogeneration plants (CHP). These enterprises have, in contrast to IES, besides electricity generation, also an additional function for the production of steam and hot water for heating.
2. Gas-turbine power stations . There are no steam boilers in their power units, and the driven gas turbines rotate by the energy of hot flue gases formed by burning fuel (natural gas, diesel fuel).
3. The steam and gas thermal power plant is an analog of a CHP plant in which steam is produced by the residual heat of the flue gases discharged from gas turbines.
4. Diesel power plants.
5. Combined ES .
General characteristics of the Ukrainian energy sector
The country has four nuclear power plants, a cascade of five powerful hydroelectric power stations on the Dnieper, a Dniester hydroelectric power station, a number of hydroelectric power plants on the Transcarpathian rivers, as well as about fifty power plants and thermal power plants of various capacities - from 20 mW (Lviv TEC-1) to 3600 mW, - Zaporozhye. The Uglegorsk TPP has the same power, but it is located near the line of confrontation in the Donbass and works with a partial load.
In Ukraine, the United Energy System (UES) has been established, which includes fourteen thermal power plants, four nuclear power plants, seven hydroelectric power plants, three hydroelectric power stations, and ninety-seven TECs, small hydropower plants, wind farms, power plants, etc. The installed capacity of the ECP of Ukraine is 53.78 million kW . In 2012, they produced 198.119 billion kWh of electricity.
At the same time, NPPs deliver stable power to the grid regardless of the time of day, while TPPs of Ukraine, along with its HPPs, working with variable capacity, cover daily peak loads.
The main energy generating companies
Centralized electricity production in the UES of Ukraine is carried out by the EP, which is part of seven power generating companies. Of these, four companies with a total installed capacity of 18.2 million kW - Kyivenergo, Dneproenergo, Zakhidenergo, Vostokenergo - are part of the Donetsk Fuel Energy Company (DTEK), which through its holding System Capital Management The oligarch Rinat Akhmetov controls.
Problems in the operation of TPP of Ukraine
The main problem is a significant reduction in coal supplies from the Donbass, as well as a lack of funds for its purchase. The shortage of coal is a common problem for all regions and energy-generating companies.
June began, and TPP warehouses are still half empty. For March and April, coal reserves at TPPs in Ukraine increased from 750 to 850 thousand tons. And to accumulate by the beginning of the heating season you need at least 3 million tons, and even better - 4 million tons of coal.
If the warehouses are filled as slowly, then by the winter they will accumulate not more than 1.3-1.5 million tons of coal. With the same meager reserves last winter, it was necessary to introduce the practice of fan- out of electricity, and the country's power plants did not fall apart only thanks to Russian coal and electricity.
However, the past winter was quite warm. If the colds are more serious, and the coal remains as little, the problems will begin much earlier and more significantly affect citizens and enterprises (which still keep on).
In summer, TPPs are forced to work at a partial capacity, so that its deficit in the UES reaches 3 million kW. According to the experience of last year, already at the beginning of winter it can increase to 6 million kW, and that provided that severe frosts do not rage.
Recent developments in the energy sector of Ukraine
At the end of May, there were two high-profile events related to the shutdown of thermal power plants. So, the company "Donbassenergo" stopped the Slavic TPP, and the state company "Centrenergo" - the work Zmiev TPP in the Kharkov region.
At the same time, in the stop of the Slavic TPP, its owner accused the Ukrainian state, which refused to pay for the electricity supplied by the company. The problem has a clear political implication, since one of the TPPs of Donbassenergo, Starobeshevskaya, is located in the DNR. The total debt of the state-owned company Energorynok, which performs mutual settlements with all energy generating and energy supply companies, today reaches about $ 72 million at Donbassenergo today at the current rate.
Zmievskaya TPP stopped work solely because of the lack of coal, which is sufficient only for the operation of one power unit. But it is economically unprofitable. Therefore, the station hopes to accumulate coal for operation by two or three power units.