Why is the grass, as well as the leaves on the trees and bushes green? Blame all chlorophyll. You can take a strong rope of knowledge and make a strong acquaintance with him.
Let's spend a little digression in the comparatively recent past. Joseph Bieneme Cavanto and Pierre Joseph Pelletier - that's who needs to shake hands. The men of science tried to separate the green pigment from the leaves of different plants. Efforts were crowned with success in 1817.
The pigment was named chlorophyll. From the Greek chloros - green, and phyllon - leaf. Regardless of the foregoing, in the early 20th century, Mikhail Tsvet and Richard Wilstetter came to the conclusion: it turns out that several components are included in chlorophyll.
Rolling his sleeves, Willstatter set to work. Purification and crystallization revealed two components. They were called simply, alpha and beta (a and b). For his labors in the field of research of this substance in 1915 he was solemnly awarded the Nobel Prize.
In 1940 Hans Fischer proposed to the whole world the final structure of chlorophyll "a". King of the synthesis Robert Burns Woodward and several scientists from America received in 1960 unnatural chlorophyll. So the veil of secrecy opened - the appearance of chlorophyll.
The chlorophyll formula, determined from the experimental indicators, looks like this: C 55 H 72 O 5 N 4 Mg. The structure includes organic dicarboxylic acid (chlorophyllin), as well as methyl alcohol and phytol. Chlorophylline is an organometallic compound that is directly related to magnesium porphyrins and contains nitrogen.
MgN 4 OH 30 C 32
Chlorophyll is an ester due to the fact that the remaining parts of methyl alcohol CH 3 OH and phytol C 20 H 39 OH replaced the hydrogen of carboxyl groups.
Above is the structural formula of chlorophyll alpha. Looking at it carefully, you can see that beta-chlorophyll has one oxygen atom more, but two hydrogen atoms less (CHO group instead of CH 3 ). Hence, the molecular weight of alpha-chlorophyll is lower than that of beta.
Magnesium was located in the middle of the particle of the substance of interest. It combines with the 4 nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole formations. A system of elementary and alternating double bonds can be observed in pyrrole bonds.
The chromophore formation, successfully entered into the composition of chlorophyll - this is N. It makes it possible to absorb individual rays of the solar spectrum and its color, regardless of the fact that in the daytime the sun burns like a flame, and in the evening it looks like smoldering coals.
Let's move on to the dimensions. The porphyrin core in diameter 10 nm, the phytol fragment was 2 nm long. In the nucleus, chlorophyll is 0.25 nm, between microparticles of pyrrole groups of nitrogen.
I would like to note that the magnesium atom, which is part of the chlorophyll, is only 0.24 nm in diameter and almost completely fills the free space between the atoms of the pyrrole nitrogen moieties, which helps the core of the molecule to be stronger.
One can come to the conclusion: of two components under the simple name of alpha and beta, chlorophyll (a and b) is composed.
The relative mass of the molecule is 893.52. Create a separate residence microcrystals in black with a blue tint. At a temperature of 117-120 degrees Celsius, they melt and reincarnate into a liquid.
In ethanol, chloroforms are the same, in acetone, and even benzenes are readily dissolved. The results take a blue-green color and have a distinctive feature - a saturated red fluorescence. Poorly soluble in petroleum ether. In the water they do not dissolve at all.
Formula of chlorophyll alpha: C 55 H 72 O 5 N 4 Mg. The substance is classified as chlorine in its chemical construction. In the ring to propionic acid, namely to its residue, a phytol is attached.
Some plant organisms, instead of chlorophyll a, form its analogue. Here, the ethyl group (-CH 2 -CH 3 ) in the II pyrrole ring was replaced by vinyl (-CH═CH 2 ). Such a molecule contains the first vinyl group in the ring one, the second in the ring two.
The chlorophyll-beta formula has the following form: C 55 H 70 O 6 N 4 Mg. The molecular weight of the substance is 903. At the carbon atom C 3 in the pyrrole ring two, a little alcohol is detected, deprived of hydrogen-HC = O, which has a yellow color. This is the difference from chlorophyll a.
We dare to note that several special types of chlorophylls reside in special permanent parts of the cell, vitally important for its further existence plastids-chloroplasts.
Chlorophyll c and d
In cryptomonads, dinoflagellates, as well as in bacillariophyte and brown algae, chlorophyll c. Classic porphyrin - this is what distinguishes this pigment.
In red algae chlorophyll d. Some doubt its existence. It is believed that it is only a product of the degeneration of chlorophyll a. At the moment we can confidently say that chlorophyll with the letter d is the main dye of some photosynthetic prokaryotes.
Properties of chlorophyll
After lengthy studies, evidence arose that in the characteristics of chlorophyll, which is in the plant and extracted from it, there is a discrepancy. Chlorophyll in plants is connected with a protein. This is evidenced by the following observations:
- The absorption spectrum of chlorophyll in the leaf is different, if one compares it with the extracted one.
- A pure alcohol from dried plants, the object of description is unrealistic. The extraction proceeds safely with well-moistened leaves, or it is necessary to add water to alcohol. It is she who breaks down the protein bound to chlorophyll.
- The material, elongated from the leaves of plants, is rapidly destroyed under the influence of oxygen, concentrated acid, light rays.
But chlorophyll in plants is resistant to all of the above.
Chlorophyll plants contain 1% of dry matter. It can be found in special organelles of the cell - plastids, which shows an uneven distribution of it in the plant. The cell plastids, colored green and having chlorophyll, are called chloroplasts.
The amount of H 2 O in chloroplasts ranges from 58 to 75%, the content of dry matter consists of proteins, lipids, chlorophyll and carotenoids.
Functions of chlorophyll
Amazing similarities were found by scientists in the arrangement of chlorophyll and hemoglobin molecules, the main respiratory component of human blood. The difference is that in the claw-like connection in the middle of the plant pigment is located magnesium, and in hemoglobin - iron.
In the course of photosynthesis, the planet's vegetation absorbs carbon dioxide and releases oxygen. Here is another remarkable function of chlorophyll. Its activity can be compared with hemoglobin, but the amount of exposure to the human body is somewhat greater.
Chlorophyll is a plant pigment, sensitive to light and covered in green. Next comes photosynthesis, in which its microparticles transform the energy of the sun absorbed by plant cells into chemical energy.
One can come to the following inferences that photosynthesis is the process of transforming the energy of the sun. If you trust the modern information, it is noticed that the flow of synthesis of organic substances from carbon dioxide and water with the use of light energy is decomposed into three stages.
Stage number 1
This phase is achieved in the process of photochemical decomposition of water, with the aid of chlorophyll. The release of molecular oxygen is noted.
Stage number 2
Several oxidation-reduction reactions are observed here. They are actively involved in cytochromes and other carriers of electrons. The reaction occurs due to the light energy transferred by electrons from water to NADPH and forming ATP. Here the light energy is stored.
Stage number 3
Already formed NADPH and ATP are being used to convert carbon dioxide to carbohydrate. Absorbed light energy participates in the reactions of stages 1 and 2. The reactions of the latter, the third, occur without the participation of light and are called dark.
Photosynthesis is the only biological process that takes place with increasing free energy. Directly or indirectly provides accessible chemical enterprise of bipeds, winged, wingless, quadrupeds and other organisms inhabiting the earth.
Hemoglobin and chlorophyll
The molecules of hemoglobin and chlorophyll have a complex but at the same time similar atomic structure. Common in their structure is the profile - a ring of small rings. The difference is seen in the outgrowths attached to the profile, and in the atoms located inside: the iron atom (Fe) in hemoglobin, in chlorophyll magnesium (Mg).
Chlorophyll and hemoglobin are similar in structure, but they form different protein structures. Around the magnesium atom formed chlorophyll, around the iron - hemoglobin. If you take a molecule of liquid chlorophyll and detach the phytol tail (20 carbon chain), change the magnesium atom to iron, then the green color of the pigment becomes red. As a result - the finished molecule of hemoglobin.
Chlorophyll is assimilated easily and quickly, thanks to this similarity. Well supports the body with oxygen starvation. Saturates the blood with the necessary trace elements, hence it better transports the most important substances for life to the cells. There is a timely release of waste materials, toxins, waste, resulting from natural metabolism. Has an effect on sleeping white blood cells, awakening them.
Described hero without fear and reproach protects, strengthens the cell membranes, helps restore connective tissue. To the merits of chlorophyll can be attributed the rapid healing of ulcers, various wounds and erosion. Improves immune work, the ability to stop pathological violations of DNA molecules is highlighted.
A positive trend in the treatment of infectious and colds. This is not the entire list of good deeds of the substance examined.