The capital of the Komi Republic. The capital of Komi on the banks of Sysola

In the north of the Russian Federation, west of the Ural Mountains, the Republic of Komi is located. About a thousand kilometers from west to east or from south to north will have to be overcome by someone who wants to get acquainted with this interesting land. The capital of Komi on the banks of Sysola (river) has settled and is proud of its ancient history.

By the decree of Catherine II

Relatively severe climate caused the irregularity of the settlement of the region. The majority of the population is located in its southern part. At the confluence of the Sysola River in the Vychegdu River, the pogost of Ust-Sysol appeared in the 16th century, from which the capital of the Komi-Syktyvkar originates.

In 1780, the tsarina Catherine II formed the Vologda governorate, which included nineteen counties, including Ust-Sysolsky. Accordingly, the village of Ust-Sysola was transformed into a uyezd town with the name Ust-Sysolsk, which immediately received its own coat of arms and a master plan, presupposing the expansion of the city at the expense of adjacent settlements.

City on the river Sysol

This is how the word Syktyvkar ("kar" - city) is translated from the Komi language. The first half of the name is associated with the Sysolaya River (Syktyv).

The new name replaced Ust-Sysolsk after many years, in 1930, when the 150th anniversary of giving it the status of a city was celebrated. In 1930, Syktyvkar was already the administrative center of the Autonomous Region of Komi (zyryan).

The city is very convenient - next to the rivers Sysoloy and Vychegda. On all sides it is surrounded by a forest that occupies more than 70 percent of the city square. It is 152 square kilometers. From Moscow Syktyvkar is separated by about 1,400 kilometers.

The city is developing

Six years passed, and in December 1936 Syktyvkar received a new status - the capital of the Komi ASSR.

The city began to actively develop industry and education, which contributed to the growth of the population. By 1989 there were already more than 240 thousand people living in the capital of Komi.

In Syktyvkar there were at that time about 40 large industrial enterprises, about a third of which had the all-Union significance. The share of timber, pulp and paper and woodworking industries accounted for more than 60 percent of all commodity products produced by the city. Business wood, sawn timber, plywood, chipboard, paper, non-woven materials - all of which was supplied by the capital of Komi to many republics of the Soviet Union.

In Syktyvkar in 1932 the state pedagogical institute was opened, then the Base of the USSR Academy of Sciences, whose specialists were studying the North, and which in 1949 was already called the Komi branch of the Academy of Sciences. Syktyvkar State University opened in 1972.

Climate of Syktyvkar

Old-timers remember the months-long harsh winters and a very short summer. However, global warming affected the climate of the capital of the Komi Republic. He became softer.

Of course, severe frosts are still not uncommon for the northeast of the European part of Russia. However, they did not become so long, on average, during the winter, three severe frosts are recruited. The rest of the winter is relatively mild, although prolonged, lasts up to 6 months a year.

Spring is also protracted, in addition, it is cold, uneven, snow may fall in May, and frosts will not surprise residents even in July. If you take into account the autumn months, then for the summer there is very little time, from the force of 2 months. The capital of Komi can not boast of even a short-term heat. The average summer temperature is 17 degrees Celsius.

The population of Syktyvkar

Today, among the population of the city with a total number of 240 thousand people, Russians predominate - they are more than 60%, while the indigenous population of the Komi or Komi-Zyryans is only about 30%.

However, this was not always the case. At the end of the 19th century, the majority of the population was the Komi. The changes began in the 20th century, when political exiles, mostly Russians, began to be sent to this region.

Komi-zyryans are Finno-Ugric people. It is he who is the indigenous population of the Republic of Komi. As of 2010, it was home to slightly more than 202,000 Komi-Zyryans (23.7% of the total population). Representatives of this nationality are in other regions of Russia, for example, the Murmansk and Sverdlovsk regions, the Nenets Autonomous District. However, they are few. The total number of Komi-Zyryans in the Russian Federation is 228 thousand people.

Komi-zyryans should not be confused with the Komi-Permyaks, although both belong to the Finno-Ugric people.

Komi in the Perm Region

In the upper basin of the river. Kama, in the Urals, located Komi-Permyatsky district - until 2005 an independent subject of the Russian Federation. Then it was merged with the Perm region, which resulted in the emergence of the Perm region.

The capital of the Komi-Permyatsky district - the city of Kudymkar - after the merger became the administrative center of the Kudymkar district. It is located on the tributaries of Kama - the rivers Yinwe and Kuwe. From Perm it is separated by 200 kilometers.

More than half the population of the city is Komi-Permyaki. In total, the Russian Federation has about 125 thousand people of this nationality.

Historical monuments of Syktyvkar

The capital of Komi can not complain about the lack of interesting places for tourists.

The Church of the Ascension refers to the most ancient historical object of the city. It is also called Voznesenskaya cemetery church. It was built at the expense of the richest merchant of Ust-Sysolsk Alexei Sukhanov from 1811 to 1820. Was built in the cemetery for the burial service of the deceased. Now a memorial complex has been erected on the site of the cemetery.

The house of Sukhanov is more than 200 years old. It is not only one of the oldest historical monuments, but also the first stone residential building. Later, it housed various institutions: the school, the party school. In 2009, after reconstruction, the museum of I. Kuratov was opened in this building.

The National Gallery is located in one more historical building, which was built more than 120 years ago for the Ust-Sysolsk Ecclesiastical School.

Podvorye Troitsky Stefano-Ulyanovskogo monastery, the house Suvorovyh, fire tower, trading house of merchants Kuzbozhevyh, the cathedral of Stefan Permsky - all these are historical and architectural monuments of the city.

Unique place - Weathering posts

Let it be located and not in Syktyvkar itself, but the capital of Komi has to do with it. At least because it is from there on the helicopter that it is most convenient to get to the seventh miracle of Russia, which is called the Pillars of weathering.

They are located in the Troitsko-Pechersky District of the Komi Republic, where the Pechorsko-Ilychsky Reserve is located. Two hundred million years ago there were high mountains, which under the influence of wind, rain, sun and snow gradually disintegrated. There remained 7 columns of solid sericite-quartzite shale on the low mountain Man-pupuner. All of them have a bizarre shape and growth from 30 to 42 meters.

The remains are also called Mansi dummies, because they were objects of worship for the Mansi people. Many legends are associated with their occurrence. According to one of them, six giants pursued people from the Mansi tribe, who aspired to leave behind the Ural Mountains. At the pass in the sources of the Pechora River, when the giants were already overtaking the tribe, they were blocked by a shaman and turned them into stone pillars. Since then, all the shamans of the Mansi tribe have dug their magic power in this sacred tract.

True or not. But many travelers who visited the mountain Man-pupuner say about the extraordinary energy of this place. However, getting there is not so easy. The choice is small: on foot or by helicopter. But the fabulous place is worth the effort.

The oil capital of the Komi Republic

In addition to the administrative center, Syktyvkar, there is the so-called oil capital in Komi. It is a young city of Usinsk, which was only 30 years old, since it was founded in 1984.

On the Usa in 1960 the first well was penetrated, in which oil was found. And in four years there began the construction of a settlement for the oil prospecting expedition of deep drilling. A few years later, the Komsomol building of a well-organized village was declared there, which, in turn, soon became a city. The total volume of oil produced in the Usinsky deposits in 1999 exceeded 200 million tons.

Today, Usinsk rightfully can be called the center of the largest in the Komi oil-producing region. The main oil-producing enterprises are located here: RN-Severnaya Neft, Lukoil-KOMI, Usinsk Industrial Company Nedra and others.

The 2010 census showed that 47 thousand people live in Usinsk.

Opponents of Syktyvkar

If you get acquainted with the news of the Republic of Komi for the last ten years, you can be sure that sometimes there flare up passions in the capital of Komi. For example, the city of Ukhta at one time claimed this honorary "post".

Why? Arguments in his favor were given even a few. Ukhta is considered an educational center of the region, because there is located USTU - one of the rare universities in Russia, which produces oil and gas professionals. In favor of Ukhta, the comfort of transportation is also said: no Komi settlement can compete with it.

However, no matter how things develop, until the question: "Which capital of the Komi Republic?" - we all answer: "Syktyvkar."

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