The water system of Kazakhstan is a huge network of rivers that stretches across the entire territory of a huge country. Among the many basins of the state, Nura-Sarysusky stands out in its size. It originates in the mountains of Kyzyltas. The largest river of this water system is Nura. It is about this and will be discussed in this article.
Information about the Nure River
Nura is a river that stretches from the source to the mouth of the Nura-Sarysu basin, where about 1 million people live. It flows from the western slopes of Kyzyltas to Lake Tengiz. The length of the river is almost 1000 km (978 km). The water artery has three main tributaries: Ulkenkundyszdy, Cherubai-Nura, and Akbastau.
The area where the Nura River is located belongs to one of the most arid regions of Kazakhstan, as it is located within the Kazakh melkosopochnika - a steppe area with small elevations. The period of high water falls in the spring. In summer, as a rule, the river dries up near the spring, and in winter it freezes. Also in the hottest period of the year, the water at the bottom of Nura becomes brackish. With the onset of cold weather in November, the river is covered with ice, which begins to break only in early April.
Pollution of the river
Nura is a river that was contaminated by chemical waste from the plant. Thus, in the second half of the last century, the Karbid plant dumped about 1,000 tons of mercury into the reservoir. In connection with this, fish caught on separate sections of the river could not be eaten. However, the situation is not as critical as it might seem at first glance. Mercury is in a sorbed state, which means that it does not pose a serious threat to the life and health of the local population. Nura is a river that has many "friends in misfortune". So, for example, a monstrous degree of pollution was exposed to the sea near the Japanese city of Minamata. A large amount of mercury, dumped in water by one of the nearby plants, caused serious damage to the health of local residents.
Purification of Nura since 2001 has become a very important activity of the government of Kazakhstan. It was during this period that a large-scale complex of measures was implemented to eliminate the mercury pollution of the river. The project is funded by the authorities of Kazakhstan in conjunction with the World Bank.
Rivers of the river
In spring the river spills. Nura emerges from the coast, as the water level rises considerably. The river is one of the largest in Kazakhstan, so its spill often causes great damage to nearby settlements. In early 2015, a record was set for the rate of raising the water level in the river. It increased by 10 cm every hour. In order to prevent the devastating consequences of a river spill, water is discharged through the locks of the hydroelectric complex on Nura.
The main reason for such a severe spill is a sharp seasonal warming, as well as a large amount of precipitation. Under the influence of warm rain, the water from the mountain slopes began to flow into the river.
Local authorities annually prepare for possible spills of Nura due to the danger of flooding of nearby towns and villages. In such zones, the Kazakhstan Committee for Water Resources directs construction materials, as well as special equipment for emergency evacuation of local residents.
The threat of flooding
In April 2015, there was a flood. The Nura River came out of the banks and broke through the embankment erected for the time of the flood to protect nearby territories. As the local authorities note, the damages concern only the barrage, and not the dam, so there is no serious danger. Temporary evacuation is subject only to residents of surrounding houses, located directly in the breakout zone.
We managed to cope with the flood in a relatively short time due to special equipment and a large number of workers.
Nura is a river with certain natural features. It is because of them that spring spills occur, as well as summer, autumn and winter drying at the source. Nearby settlements almost every year are submerged, but there is usually no serious damage. Strong floods were recorded only in the middle of the last century. Since there was a technical breakthrough, they manage to cope fairly quickly, not allowing the waters of the river to become a destructive force.