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Mainland Eurasia. Mountains: description and features

The continent of Eurasia has a rather complex structure. Its relief is boundless plains and huge mountain belts. It is this factor, or rather, the feature of location, that distinguishes it from other continents. The mountains in Eurasia are in the depths of the continent, thereby forming a unique place for the unification of the two largest belts, the Pacific and the Alibe-Himalayan.

The relief of the continent is quite diverse, as its formation has been going on for several eras. Therefore, studying the mountains, you can distinguish significant differences in shape and height. The Himalayas, the Caucasus, the Crimean, and the Carpathians are considered relatively young. Basically they have sharp peaks and steep slopes. Their height and power amaze with their splendor.

Getting to know the mainland

Eurasia in terms of area is the largest continent on the planet Earth. It occupies about 54 million square kilometers. The continent is mostly located in the northern hemisphere, and only some of the islands are in the southern hemisphere. The continent unites two significant parts of the world: Europe and Asia. The mountains of Eurasia, in particular the Urals, as well as the Ural, Emba, Manych, Kuma rivers, the Black and Caspian Seas are the border between them.

It should be noted that this continent is the only one that is washed by all four oceans:

  • North-Arctic in the north.
  • Indian in the south.
  • Quiet in the east.
  • Atlantic in the west.

Features of the relief

Eurasia is a continent with a diverse relief. It is home to the world's largest mountains and plains. It is also worth noting that from other continents it is distinguished by a height of 850 m. Some scientists claim that the ice cover of Antarctica is much larger. If you count the parent rock, then its indicators are the smallest.

On the territory of Eurasia there are several active volcanoes, they are located in the Kamchatka region, Southeast Asia, Iceland. The height of the continent is mainly due to the presence of mountain systems. They stretch across the continent, occupying 60% of its land area.

The main and highest mountains of Eurasia

  • Tien-Shan, whose height - 3 thousand meters, in translation means "heavenly body."
  • The Hindu Kush is included with the Alpine-Himalayan system, the height of the peaks is from 4 thousand meters to 6 thousand meters.
  • Karakorum, the main peak - Dapsang, reaches 8.5 thousand meters.
  • The Caucasian mountain system in translation means "snow-white mountain", the highest peak is Elbrus, its height is 5.6 thousand meters.
  • Alps - a large mountain belt, the city of Mont Blanc reaches almost 5 thousand meters.
  • Himalayas, the highest point is Mount Jomolungma, or Everest (more than 8.8 thousand meters).

Himalayan mountain system: a description

The Himalayas are recognized as the highest mountain belt on the whole planet Earth. These mountains on the continent of Eurasia are located between the Indo-Gan Plain and the Tibetan upland. Their peaks are always covered with snow cover. It is this factor that influenced the name of the mountain system, in translation from the Scandinavian language it means "abode of snows". The length of the Himalayas reaches 3 thousand km, and its width is about 400 km. The total area of the mountain system is 650 thousand km. Most of the peaks are 6 thousand meters high, but there are 10 ridges that exceed the mark of 8 thousand meters. It is this system that belongs to the famous mountain Everest, which rises almost 9,000 meters above sea level.

Climatic conditions

The southern slopes of the Himalayas are under the influence of monsoon winds. But in the north, these mountains of Eurasia fall into the continental climatic belt, cold temperatures prevail here and a small amount of precipitation prevails. Summer time in the southern part is a rainy season, they are quite plentiful. Snow in the Himalayas lies all year round, high in the mountains, the temperature can vary from -25 to -40 0 C. Here you can constantly observe the stormy hurricanes, the speed of which sometimes reaches 150 km / h. The probability of rapid weather changes is not excluded.


Vegetation in the Himalayas is distributed along tiers. Here there are deciduous and coniferous forests and meadows. Also, the world of evergreen tropical plants is widely represented. In the north, the flora is scarcer, semi-deserts and steppes predominate. At an altitude of 2 km you can find such trees as maples, oaks, chestnuts, and a little higher - cedars and pine trees. But already at the mark of 4 km grow more mosses and shrubs. The mountains of Eurasia at an altitude of 5 km have no vegetation, since at this level the zone of eternal snows begins.


In the meadows you can find a rhinoceros Indian and snow leopard. In the tropical zone, the animal world is quite diverse. These are mammals, insects, and reptiles. In the north, bears, antelopes, musk deer are more common. And also in the steppe zone you can see grazing wild rams, horses, goats.

The largest continent on the planet is Eurasia. The mountains (the most significant), the lakes, the seas are located here. On the continent, many different climatic zones are united : from hot southern to cold northern lands. An interesting fact is that it is in Eurasia that the lowest point of land (the Dead Sea) and the pole of the northern hemisphere with a critically cold temperature are located.

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